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British Geological Survey

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  • It is crucial that the engineered seals of boreholes in the vicinity of a deep storage facility remain effective for considerable timescales if the long-term geological containment of stored CO2 is to be effective. These timescales extend beyond those achievable by laboratory experiments or industrial experience. Study of the carbonation of natural Ca silicate hydrate (CSH) phases provides a useful insight into the alteration processes and evolution of cement phases over long-timescales more comparable with those considered in performance assessments. Samples from two such natural analogues in Northern Ireland have been compared with samples from laboratory experiments on the carbonation of Portland cement. Samples showed similar carbonation reaction processes even though the natural and experimental samples underwent carbonation under very different conditions and timescales. These included conversion of the CSH phases to CaCO3 and SiO2, and the formation of a well-defined reaction front. In laboratory experiments the reaction front is associated with localised Ca migration, localised matrix porosity increase, and localised shrinkage of the cement matrix with concomitant cracking. Behind the reaction front is a zone of CaCO3 precipitation that partly seals porosity. A broader and more porous/permeable reaction zone was created in the laboratory experiments compared to the natural samples, and it is possible that short-term experiments might not fully replicate slower, longer-term processes. That the natural samples had only undergone limited carbonation, even though they had been exposed to atmospheric CO2 or dissolved View the MathML sourceHCO3- in groundwater for several thousands of years, may indicate that the limited amounts of carbonate mineral formation may have protected the CSH phases from further reaction. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2012.09.007. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0883292712002594.

  • This is one of the early papers on CO2 storage. Natural analogues indicate that it is possible to dispose of CO2 underground in closed structures on deep aquifers. Disposal into depleted or exhausted hydrocarbon fields has many advantages, e.g. proven seal, known storage capacity, no exploration costs. Unfortunately there are very few hydrocarbon fields in the UK onshore area, and their total CO2 storage capacity is very low compared to annual UK CO2 production from power generation. The best aquifers for CO2 disposal onshore are the widespread Permo-Triassic sandstones. Further onshore potential exists in younger Mesozoic reservoirs. Offshore, disposal into depleted oil fields (where cost credits from enhanced oil recovery could be beneficial) or the Perno-Triassic gas fields of the southern North Sea, and nearby associated closures of the Triassic Sherwood Sandstone aquifer, appear to provide the best prospects. doi:10.1016/0196-8904(93)90038-C. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/019689049390038C

  • Fault risk remains a key parameter in evaluating the potential for trapping CO2 in the subsurface, yet very little is known about the conditions under which CO2 and CO2/hydrocarbon mixtures are retained by faults. The project will investigate the roles and properties of faults in their capacity to retain CO2. Natural and engineered accumulations of hydrocarbon and CO2-hydrocarbon mixtures will be examined across a wide self-similar province (to minimize geological variability) to develop a knowledge base of fault flow properties. Fault geometries, orientations, seismic attributes, proven vertical trapping and lateral pressure retention values and column-heights will be documented. High-quality data-rich examples will be selected for analysis with established software tools to predict and calibrate CO2 column height and pressure retention. Differences between prediction and observation will be reconciled by checking site-specific geology and optimising the petrophysical property values assigned to the faults, reservoir, seals and fluids (within realistic ranges) to produce an understandable pragmatic and calibrated fit. The fault properties knowledge-base and the newly calibrated tools will be applied to selected key reservoirs from the ETI UK Storage Assessment Project (UKSAP). This will provide improved and evidence-based assessment of storage in regional UK North Sea aquifers such as the Bunter Sandstone, Forties, Tay and Captain. These are some of the largest and promising early developments for storage and are vital to reducing storage costs via multi-user storage. The Bunter Sandstone has 8Gt CO2 unrisked capacity - but only 1Gt may be considered viable because of fault risk. The Captain, Forties and Tay sandstones total 11.5Gt CO2 unrisked capacity, of which only 1Gt may be currently considered viable. The impact of the research will be to upgrade parts of the UKSAP assessment and to assist the development of the large capacity element in these formations that does have perceived fault risk. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-14.

  • Pre-proposal for scientific drilling 'GlaciStore: Understanding Late Cenozoic glaciation and basin processes for the development of secure large-scale offshore CO2storage (North Sea)', submitted to Integrated Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP) March 2014. The proponent 'GlaciStore' consortium comprises research and industry organisations from the UK and Norway. The pre-proposal describes the scientific research objectives, 12 proposed drill sites to address the objectives, the relationship of the research with the IODP science plan, and describes and illustrates three scientific objectives. The objectives are to investigate the glacial history and sedimentary architecture, fluid flow and processes, and the stress history and geomechanical response in strata that have experienced multiple glacial and interglacial cycles cycles. A drilling and sampling strategy and the measurements expected to be taken are also described The lead submitter, on behalf to the GlaciStore consortium is Heather Stewart, British Geological Survey (BGS).The 27 proponents from the UK and Norway (BGS, Institute for Energy Technology, Lundin Norway AS, SINTEF Energy Research, Statoil ASA, University of Bergen, University of Edinburgh and University of Oslo) and their expertise are listed. The pre-proposal is a pdf format file. This is restricted to the proponents for publication and to progress to full proposal to IODP. UKCCSRC Grant UKCCSRC-C1-30.

  • The World Magnetic Model (WMM), produced jointly with the US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geophysical Data Center, is the standard model in UK Ministry of Defence and US Department of Defense navigation and attitude reference systems and is also used widely in civilian navigation systems. The model is also used on marine and aviation charts and is revised every five years.

  • We aim to de-risk the development of the major potential CO2 storage reservoirs in the UK sector of the Northern and Central North Sea by developing our understanding of the geometry and properties of the overburden above the potential reservoirs (including their seals), and by developing an understanding of the likely hydraulic connectivity in the reservoirs, surrounding strata and overburden and hence the likely flow paths for CO2 and formation brine within and between them. These reservoirs are some of the most widespread and internally hydraulically well-connected reservoirs on the UK Continental Shelf and appear to have excellent potential for high injectivity, large capacity without excessive pressure rise and, in some cases, good containment. Consequently, they promise to be of great significance if CCS becomes a major greenhouse gas mitigation technology in the UK. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-30.

  • Revised full proposal cover sheet for scientific drilling (852-CPP2) 'GlaciStore: Understanding Pleistocene glaciation and basin processes and their impact on fluid migration pathways (North Sea)', submitted to Integrated Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP) April 2016. The full proposal cover sheet document is publicly available from IODP; the submitted full proposal document is restricted to the proponents for publication and for review and response from IODP. The proposal is a revision of full proposal 852-CPP in response to review by IODP. The lead submitter, on behalf to the GlaciStore consortium is Heather Stewart, British Geological Survey (BGS).The 32 proponents are from research and industry organisations in the UK, Norway, USA and Canada (BGS, Institute for Energy Technology, Lundin Norway AS, Memorial University of Newfoundland, SINTEF Energy Research, Statoil ASA, University of Bergen, University of Edinburgh, University of Oslo and University of Ottawa University of Texas at Austin). The revised full proposal cover sheet states the names of proponents of the 'GlaciStore' consortium and details for the lead submitter of the bid. The full proposal cover sheet comprises: an abstract of the submitted full proposal including description of project funding support as a Complementary Project Proposal: describes and states the scientific research objectives; summarises proposed non-standard measurements; tabulates details of the 13 proposed drill sites (revised from full proposal CPP-852) to address the scientific objectives. The objectives are to investigate: glacial history and sedimentary architecture; fluid flow and microbial processes in shallow sediments; and the stress history and geomechanical models for strata that have experienced multiple glacial and interglacial cycles. The table of revised proposed drilling sites includes designation of primary or alternate sites, the co-ordinates of the position and water depth at each proposed site, the objective for drilling and sampling and the depth to achieve the objective. The proponents, their affiliation, expertise and role for the submission are listed. UKCCSRC Grant UKCCSRC-C1-30.

  • The IEA (International Energy Agency) Weyburn Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Monitoring and Storage Project has analysed the effects of a miscible CO2 flood into a carbonate reservoir rock at an onshore Canadian oilfield. Anthropogenic CO2 is being injected as part of an enhanced oil recovery operation. The European research was aimed at analysing longterm migration pathways of CO2 and the effects of CO2 on the hydrochemical and mineralogical properties of the reservoir rock. This report is a synthesis of the principal findings of the European research effort and an assessment of how successfully the project objectives have been met. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/3682/.

  • Pre-proposal cover sheet for scientific drilling 'GlaciStore: Understanding Late Cenozoic glaciation and basin processes for the development of secure large-scale offshore CO2 storage (North Sea)', submitted to Integrated Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP) March 2014. The pre-proposal cover sheet document is publicly available from IODP; the submitted pre-proposal document is restricted to the proponents for publication and to progress to full proposal to IODP. The lead submitter, on behalf to the GlaciStore consortium is Heather Stewart, British Geological Survey (BGS).The 25 proponents are from research and industry organisations in the UK and Norway (BGS, Institute for Energy Technology, Lundin Norway AS, SINTEF Energy Research, Statoil ASA, University of Bergen, University of Edinburgh and University of Oslo). The pre-proposal cover sheet states the names of proponents of the 'GlaciStore' consortium and contact details for the lead submitter of the bid. The pre-proposal cover sheet comprises an abstract of the submitted pre-proposal, describes and states the scientific research objectives, and tabulates details of the 12 proposed drill sites to address the scientific objectives. The objectives are to investigate the glacial history and sedimentary architecture, fluid flow and processes, and the stress history and geomechanical response in strata that have experienced multiple glacial and interglacial cycles. The table of proposed drilling sites includes the co-ordinates of the position and water depth at each proposed site, the objective for drilling and sampling and the depth to achieve the objective. The IODP pre-proposal cover sheet is a pdf format file. UKCCSRC Grant UKCCSRC-C1-30

  • Full proposal cover sheet for scientific drilling (852-CPP) 'GlaciStore: Understanding Late Cenozoic glaciation and basin processes for the development of secure large-scale offshore CO2 storage (North Sea)', submitted to Integrated Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP) April 2014. The full proposal cover sheet document is publicly available from IODP; the submitted full proposal document is restricted to the proponents for publication and for review and response from IODP. The lead submitter, on behalf to the GlaciStore consortium is Heather Stewart, British Geological Survey (BGS).The 30 proponents are from research and industry organisations in the UK, Norway and USA (BGS, Institute for Energy Technology, Lundin Norway AS, SINTEF Energy Research, Statoil ASA, University of Bergen, University of Edinburgh, University of Oslo and University of Texas at Austin). The full proposal cover sheet states the names of proponents of the ‘GlaciStore’ consortium and contact details for the lead submitter of the bid. The full proposal cover sheet comprises: an abstract of the submitted full proposal including description of project funding support as a Complementary Project Proposal: describes and states the scientific research objectives; summarises proposed non-standard measurements; tabulates details of the 13 proposed drill sites (revised from pre-proposal stage) to address the scientific objectives. The objectives are to investigate: glacial history and sedimentary architecture; fluid flow and microbial processes in shallow sediments; and the stress history and geomechanical models for strata that have experienced multiple glacial and interglacial cycles. The table of proposed drilling sites includes the co-ordinates of the position and water depth at each proposed site, the objective for drilling and sampling and the depth to achieve the objective. The proponents, their affiliation, expertise and role for the submission are listed. UKCCSRC Grant UKCCSRC-C1-30.