Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microtomography of fluidal pyroclasts (X-ray microtomography). Data are referenced in Clarke et al., 2019: Fluidal pyroclasts reveal the intensity of peralkaline rhyolite pumice cone eruptions; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09947-8.
This dataset comprises ECLIPSE input decks for a 3D reservoir simulation of the CO2 plume at the Sleipner CO2 injection site. This whole reservoir model is an attempt to history match the growth of the plume observed on seismic data. A seismic velocity and density model derived from the 3D reservoir simulation is also included, together with a series of Seismic Unix scripts to create a synthetic seismic section through the Sleipner reservoir model, for comparison with released time-lapse seismic data.
This dataset represents the raw reads from sequencing the V4 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA gene on an Illumina MiSeq platform. The samples are filtered groundwater samples from 8 boreholes from a sandy-dominated site and a clay-dominated site in Cambodia that show arsenic concentrations above the WHO recommended limit, and were collected in May 2019.
Data from laboratory experiments conducted as part of project NE/K011464/1 (associated with NE/K011626/1) Multiscale Impacts of Cyanobacterial Crusts on Landscape stability. Soils were collected from two sites in eastern Australia and transferred to a laboratory at Griffith University, Queensland for conduct of experiments. Soils were A, a sandy loam, and B a loamy fine sand. Trays 120 mm x 1200 mm x 50 mm were filled with untreated soil that contained a natural population of biota. Soils were either used immediately for experiments (physical soil crust only: PC) or were placed in a greenhouse and spray irrigated until a cyanobacterial crust has grown from the natural biota. Growth was for a period of 5 days (SS), c.30 days (MS2) or c.60 days (MS1). Following the growing period (if applicable) trays were placed in a temperature/humidity controlled room at 35° and 30% humidity until soil moisture (measured 5 mm below the surface) was 5%. Trays were then subject to rainfall simulation. Rainfall intensity of 60 mm hr-1 was used and rainfall was applied for 2 minutes (achieving 2 mm application), 8 minutes (achieving 8 mm application) or 15 minutes (achieving 15 mm application). Following rainfall, trays were returned to the temperature/humidity-controlled room under UV lighting until soil moisture at 5 mm below the surface was 5%. A wind tunnel was then placed on top of each tray in turn and a sequential series of wind velocities (5, 7, 8.5, 10, 12 m s-1) applied each for one minute duration. On each tray the five wind velocities were run without saltation providing a cumulative dust flux. For the highest wind speed, an additional simulation run was conducted with the injection of saltation sands. Three replicates of each rainfall treatment were made. Variables measured include photographs, spectral reflectance, surface roughness, fluorescence, penetrometry, chlorophyll content, extracellular polysaccharide content, Carbon, Nitrogen and splash erosion and particle-size analysis (of wind eroded material). Details of rainfall simulator, growth of cyanobacteria, laser soil surface roughness characterisation and wind tunnel design and deployment in Strong et al., 2016; Bullard et al. 2018, 2019. Bullard, J.E., Ockelford, A., Strong, C.L., Aubault, H. 2018a. Impact of multi-day rainfall events on surface roughness and physical crusting of very fine soils. Geoderma, 313, 181-192. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.10.038. Bullard, J.E., Ockelford, A., Strong, C.L., Aubault, H. 2018b. Effects of cyanobacterial soil crusts on surface roughness and splash erosion. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences. doi: 10.1029/2018. Strong, C.S., Leys, J.F., Raupach, M.R., Bullard, J.E., Aubault, H.A., Butler, H.J., McTainsh, G.H. 2016. Development and testing of a micro wind tunnel for on-site wind erosion simulations. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 16, 1065-1083.
There is a report highlighting the approach for model construction and recommendations for any future work. There is an excel file pf processed data including time, centrifuge speed, water pressure, and temperature data. There is a zip folder containing photographs of the models, the instrumentaiton and granular ice used for model construction There is a zip folder containing the raw data.
Image data published in AGU paper "Estimation of Capillary Pressure in Unconventional Reservoirs Using Thermodynamic Analysis of Pore Images". The images of unconventional shale rock pores were captured using nano-CT and SEM imaging methods. Images are segmented into fluid (or pore) and rock phases and are stored in RGB format as JPG files. Images were used to produce the plots and data presented in the above referenced paper.
A number of processes, both natural and anthropogenic, involve the fracture of rocks subjected to tensile stress, including vein growth and mineralization, and the extraction of hydrocarbons through hydraulic fracturing. In each case, the fundamental material property of mode-I fracture toughness must be overcome in order for a tensile fracture to nucleate and propagate. Whilst measuring this parameter is straightforward at ambient pressure, estimating the fracture toughness of rocks at depth, where they experience a confining pressure, is technically challenging. Here, we report a new analysis combining results from standard thick-walled cylinder burst tests with quantitative acoustic emission to estimate the mode-I fracture toughness (KIc) of Nash Point Shale at elevated confining pressure, simulating in-situ conditions to approximately 1km. In the most favorable orientation, the pressure required to fracture the rock shell (injection pressure, Pinj) increases from 6.1 MPa at 2.2 MPa confining pressure (PC), to 34 MPa at 20 MPa confining pressure. When fractures cross the shale bedding, the required injection pressures are 30.3 MPa (at Pc = 4.5 MPa) and 58 MPa (at Pc = 20 MPa), respectively. Applying the model of Abou-Sayed (1978) to estimate initial flaw size, we calculate that this pressure increase equates to an increase in KIc from 0.6 MPa.m1/2 at 3.2 MPa differential pressure (Pinj - PC) to 4.1 MPa.m1/2 at 22 MPa differential pressure. We conclude that the increasing pressure due to depth in the Earth will have a significant influence on fracture toughness, which is also a function of the inherent anisotropy.
The file contain groundwater level/depth (WL), Groundwater and Surface Water Quality data (EC (micro-siemens per centimetre or µS/cm), Temperature (degrees C) and pH) for 49 points under fortnightly monitoring relevant to Gro for GooD research project in Kwale County, Kenya. Blank - Data not available. Note this is same dataset as NGDC record number 118189 with extended time series. Gro for GooD: Groundwater Risk Management for Growth and Development
The data sets contain the daily record of meters of groundwater columns for 7 Heron logger transducers installed in different boreholes and wells in the study area. Missing data denoted -9999. The Barlog data for atmospheric pressure (Atmospheric Pressure data measured by Heron Barologger for the period of April 2014 to November 2018 at Munje Jabalini.) is also included. "Uncomp.HT.WTR. Above Transducer" corresponds to the actual pressure the dipperLog is measuring. "Barologger Data" corresponds to the Barlog data for atmospheric pressure at Munje Jabalini "Comp.Depth.WTR Below the Datum" is the "Depth below datum" entered in the logger setup less "Comp.HT.WTR. Above Transducer". The data was collected by Albert Folch and Nuria Ferrer (UPC), Mike Lane and Calvince Wara (Rural Focus Ltd). The PI on the Gro for GooD project was Prof. Rob Hope, University of Oxford.
These files include hydrochemical data and groundwater level time series for a number of boreholes and wells within the basement aquifers of the Romwe catchment. For each borehole/well there are associated depth, geology and use data. A time series study of abstraction was also carried out for a subset of wells. Time series rainfall data for a rain gauge in the catchment is also included. These data were collected through a series of projects: Small scale irrigation using collector wells: pilot project (CEH/BGS/Zimbabwe Ministry of Lands, Agriculture and Water Development; DfID funded) Sustainability of yield from wells and boreholes in hard rock aquifers (BGS; DfID funded) Regional groundwater recharge assessment in semi-arid areas (CEH/BGS; DfID-funded) The Hydrology of a dry land catchment in southern Zimbabwe, and the effects of climatic and land use change on shallow groundwater resources (PhD project, Uni. Reading/CEH) Integrated Catchment Management and Sustainable Water Resource Development in Semi-arid Zimbabwe (PhD project, Uni. Reading/CEH) Note: CEH (Center of Ecology and Hydrology) was known as ‘IH’ during the period of the study