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  • The dataset contains 15 plots and data for time-dependent pressures and temperatures at various locations along a 2582-m-long well and at various simulation times. The realistic scenarios taken into considerations are applied to the Goldeneye depleted reservoir in the North Sea. Pure CO2 is injected into the well and then discharged in the Goldeneye reservoir. Six different scenarios are considered: three different injection durations (linear ramp-up of the inlet mass flow rate from 0 to 33.5 kg/s over 5 minutes, 30 minutes, and 2 hours) and two different upstream temperatures (278.15 K and 283.15 K). Data is currently restricted until publication.

  • This dataset is used and fully described/interpreted in the paper: Passelegue, F. X., N. Brantut, T. M. Mitchell, Fault reactivation by fluid injection: Controls from stress state and injection rate, submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett. Text files contain raw and processed data. Mechanical data are raw. Load needs to corrected (offset) from piston friction, measured at the beginning of each run before the hit point. Axial displacement is converted into sample shortening by correcting the load from machine stiffness, which is equal to 480 kN/mm (calibrated on Mon. 14 Mar. 2016). Data include a set of elastic wave first arrival times, obtained from time of flight measurements using an array of piezoelectric transducers and the cross-correlation method detailed in Brantut (2015) (see reference above). Two separate files correspond to mechanical data from experiments conducted at 50 and 100 MPa confining pressure (""mech_Pc=???MPa.txt""). One file (""sensors.txt"") contains the initial positions of each piezoelectric transducer. Files named ""wave_?_Pc=100MPa.txt"" (?=1,2,3 or 4) contain time series of arrival times during the four injections conducted at Pc=100MPa. Each column consists in the time-of-flight between a given pair of sensors (x->y, where x is the index of source sensor, and y is the index of the receiver sensor, as per their numbering in the ""sensors.txt"" file.) In all the data files, the first column corresponds to a common time basis, in seconds.

  • Text data capturing pore fluid pressures (upstream and downstream), axial stress, axial and radial displacement were conditioned and logged by a high-speed data acquisition unit (NI-DAQ 6341) recording data at 10kHz. Two additional cantilever-type radial strain probes are attached directly to the sample at 90 degrees to each other, with an average output calculated via sqrt[(rA2 + rB2)], where rA and rB are the two radial outputs, to monitor an average radial strain and crack opening displacement.

  • Data recorded during hydrostatic pressurisation and triaxial rock deformation experiments of Westerly granite and Darley Dale sandstone. Data consists of mechanical data (load, displacement, confining pressure) and pore pressure data (up- and downstream pore pressure, upstream intensifier volume, four pore pressure transducers mounted on sample). Contains all data necessary to evaluate the results presented in the paper entitled: 'Fluid pressure heterogeneity during fluid flow in rocks: New laboratory measurement device and method' by Brantut and Aben, submitted to Geophysical Journal International, and available at arXiv (arXiv:2006.16699).

  • The data include the following: 1. Simulation input files (parameters used in free energy Lattice Boltzmann simulations). 2. Results from these simulations and the corresponding analysis, as presented in the manuscript "Pore scale modeling of drainage displacement patterns in association with geological sequestration of CO2". Free energy lattice Boltzmann method: A thermodynamically consistent numerical scheme to solve the hydrodynamic equations of motion, associated with two-phase flow at the pore-scale. Simulations were accelerated by using multiple general-purpose graphics processing units (GPGPUs).

  • The response of the benthic microbial community to a controlled sub-seabed CO2 leak was assessed using quantitative PCR measurements of benthic bacterial, archaeal and cyanobacteria/chloroplast 16S rRNA genes. Similarly, the impact of CO2 release on the abundance of benthic bacterial and archaeal ammonia amoA genes and transcripts, and also to the abundance of nitrite oxidizer (nirS) and anammox hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) genes and transcripts. Samples were taken from four zones (epicentre (zone 1); 25m distant (zone 2), 75m distant (zone 3) and 450m distant (zone 4)) during 6 time points (7 days before CO2 exposure, after 14 and 36 days of CO2 release, and 6, 20 and 90 days after the CO2 release had ended). Changes to the active community of microphytobenthos and bacteria were also assessed before, during and after CO2 release using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of cyanobacteria/chloroplast 16S rRNA. Changes to the composition of the active bacterial community was assessed first using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) of bacterial 16S rRNA. In depth comparisons of possible changes to the active bacterial community at zone 1 and 4 before, during and immediately after the CO2 release was performed using 16S rRNA 454 pyrosequencing. This dataset was created by Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) under the program QICS (Quantifying and monitoring environmental impacts of geological carbon storage) which was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), with support from the Scottish Government. The results are contained in three text files. QICS project website: www.bgs.ac.uk/qics/home.html. Tait et al. (2015) Rapid response of the active microbial community to CO2 exposure from a controlled sub-seabed CO2 leak in Ardmucknish Bay (Oban, Scotland). IJGGC DOI: 10.1016/ijggc.2014.11.021. Watanabe et al. (2015) Ammonia oxidation activity of microorganisms in surface sediment to a controlled sub-seabed release of CO2. IJGGC DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.11.013.

  • Data from laboratory experiments conducted as part of project NE/K011464/1 (associated with NE/K011626/1) Multiscale Impacts of Cyanobacterial Crusts on Landscape stability. Soils were collected from two sites in eastern Australia and transferred to a laboratory at Griffith University, Queensland for conduct of experiments. Soils were A, a sandy loam, and B a loamy fine sand. Trays 120 mm x 1200 mm x 50 mm were filled with untreated soil that contained a natural population of biota. Soils were either used immediately for experiments (physical soil crust only: PC) or were placed in a greenhouse and spray irrigated until a cyanobacterial crust has grown from the natural biota. Growth was for a period of 5 days (SS), c.30 days (MS2) or c.60 days (MS1). Following the growing period (if applicable) trays were placed in a temperature/humidity controlled room at 35° and 30% humidity until soil moisture (measured 5 mm below the surface) was 5%. Trays were then subject to rainfall simulation. Rainfall intensity of 60 mm hr-1 was used and rainfall was applied for 2 minutes (achieving 2 mm application), 8 minutes (achieving 8 mm application) or 15 minutes (achieving 15 mm application). Following rainfall, trays were returned to the temperature/humidity-controlled room under UV lighting until soil moisture at 5 mm below the surface was 5%. A wind tunnel was then placed on top of each tray in turn and a sequential series of wind velocities (5, 7, 8.5, 10, 12 m s-1) applied each for one minute duration. On each tray the five wind velocities were run without saltation providing a cumulative dust flux. For the highest wind speed, an additional simulation run was conducted with the injection of saltation sands. Three replicates of each rainfall treatment were made. Variables measured include photographs, spectral reflectance, surface roughness, fluorescence, penetrometry, chlorophyll content, extracellular polysaccharide content, Carbon, Nitrogen and splash erosion and particle-size analysis (of wind eroded material). Details of rainfall simulator, growth of cyanobacteria, laser soil surface roughness characterisation and wind tunnel design and deployment in Strong et al., 2016; Bullard et al. 2018, 2019. Bullard, J.E., Ockelford, A., Strong, C.L., Aubault, H. 2018a. Impact of multi-day rainfall events on surface roughness and physical crusting of very fine soils. Geoderma, 313, 181-192. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.10.038. Bullard, J.E., Ockelford, A., Strong, C.L., Aubault, H. 2018b. Effects of cyanobacterial soil crusts on surface roughness and splash erosion. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences. doi: 10.1029/2018. Strong, C.S., Leys, J.F., Raupach, M.R., Bullard, J.E., Aubault, H.A., Butler, H.J., McTainsh, G.H. 2016. Development and testing of a micro wind tunnel for on-site wind erosion simulations. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 16, 1065-1083.

  • Data supporting 'Effective permeability tensors of three-dimensional numerically grown geomechanical discrete fracture networks with evolving geometry and mechanical apertures', submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. Authors: Robin N Thomas (corresponding, robin.thomas11@imperial.ac.uk), Adriana Paluszny, Robert W Zimmerman. Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London. Contents: For each GDFN, the geometry at each growth step. Additionally, for GDFN E, the data shown in the paper (aperture and flow distributions, figures 6 and 7) are provided, including the displacement for the mechanical case, and pressure distributions which were not shown in the manuscript. For the two SDFN sets, the geometry of the four datasets shown in figures 4 and 5 are provided. Notes: - The geometry files are provided in the .3dm format, Rhinocerous' native format (https://www.rhino3d.com/). A free trial of Rhinocerous can be used to explore the files, and can convert them to a range of other CAD file types. - VTK files can be viewed using free software such as Paraview (https://www.paraview.org/). These contain the meshes. - Fracture surface areas reported in the paper are derived from the mesh, rather than the geometry. The mesh approximates the geometry leading to a different surface area than those measured in the geometry (3dm) files. - The SDFN datasets are shown before trimming the parts of fractures which are outside the domain. These parts are trimmed when they are imported to ICGT.

  • Data from laboratory experiments conducted as part of project NE/K011464/1 (associated with NE/K011626/1) Multiscale Impacts of Cyanobacterial Crusts on Landscape stability. Soils were collected from two sites in eastern Australia and transferred to a laboratory at Griffith University, Queensland for conduct of experiments. Soils were A, a sandy loam, and B a loamy fine sand. Trays 120 mm x 1200 mm x 50 mm were filled with untreated soil that contained a natural population of biota. Soils were either used immediately for experiments (physical soil crust only: PC) or were placed in a greenhouse and spray irrigated until a cyanobacterial crust has grown from the natural biota. Growth was for a period of 5 days (SS), c.30 days (MS2) or c.60 days (MS1). Following the growing period (if applicable) trays were placed in a temperature/humidity controlled room at 35º and 30% humidity until soil moisture (measured 5 mm below the surface) was 5%. Trays were then subject to rainfall simulation. Rainfall intensity of 60 mm hr-1 was used and rainfall was applied for 2 minutes (achieving 2 mm application), 8 minutes (achieving 8 mm application) or 15 minutes (achieving 15 mm application). Following rainfall, trays were returned to the temperature/humidity-controlled room under UV lighting until soil moisture at 5 mm below the surface was 5%. A wind tunnel was then placed on top of each tray in turn and a sequential series of wind velocities (5, 7, 8.5, 10, 12 m s-1) applied each for one minute duration. On each tray the five wind velocities were run without saltation providing a cumulative dust flux. For the highest wind speed, an additional simulation run was conducted with the injection of saltation sands. Three replicates of each rainfall treatment were made. Variables measured include photographs, spectral reflectance, surface roughness, fluorescence, penetrometry, chlorophyll content, extracellular polysaccharide content, Carbon, Nitrogen and splash erosion and particle-size analysis (of wind eroded material). Details of rainfall simulator, growth of cyanobacteria, laser soil surface roughness characterisation and wind tunnel design and deployment in Strong et al., 2016; Bullard et al. 2018, 2019. Bullard, J.E., Ockelford, A., Strong, C.L., Aubault, H. 2018a. Impact of multi-day rainfall events on surface roughness and physical crusting of very fine soils. Geoderma, 313, 181-192. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.10.038. Bullard, J.E., Ockelford, A., Strong, C.L., Aubault, H. 2018b. Effects of cyanobacterial soil crusts on surface roughness and splash erosion. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences. doi: 10.1029/2018. Strong, C.S., Leys, J.F., Raupach, M.R., Bullard, J.E., Aubault, H.A., Butler, H.J., McTainsh, G.H. 2016. Development and testing of a micro wind tunnel for on-site wind erosion simulations. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 16, 1065-1083.

  • Grant: NE/N016173/1.The data presented herein comprises raw and segmented X-Ray micro-CT data, CMG simulation files and Matlab processing files for the paper 'Representative elementary volumes, hysteresis and heterogeneity in multiphase flow from the pore to continuum scale'. The data is organised as Core 1 and Core 2 respectively. Full core scans are obtained at a resolution of 6 microns. Region of interest (ROI) scans are obtained at 3.45 micron and 2 micon (core 1) and 3.5 micron (core 2). Resolution information is contained within the file names. Voxel sizes in the image files can be changed to match these values. Experimental post-processing files contain the upscaled saturations and porosity values in 3D, which are used in the paper. It also contains the pore-filling analysis. The CMG simulation files contain the input deck, 3D digitial core information (porosity, capillary pressure) needed to simulate both the drainage and imbibition core floods, with corresponding Matlab analysis files. These are Bentheimer outcrop cores obtained from Shell, Amsterdam. It is a shallow marine rock, deposited during the Lower Cretaceous. It outcrops between Enschede and Schoonenbeek in the Netherlands.