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  • This dataset compares historic grassland survey data with contemporary spatial data of habitats in England. The National Vegetation Classification (NVC) community and grassland type were determined for 848 quadrats surveyed at grassland sites in England between 1960 and 1981. A 100m buffer was generated around each individual quadrat which matched the spatial accuracy (±100m) of the quadrat location, to represent a grassland site. These sites were intersected with Natural England's Priority Habitats Inventory in ArcGIS, to indicate the percentage cover of priority habitats found at the grassland sites in 2013. This dataset supersedes the previous version. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) data for Integrated Hydrological Units (IHU) groups (Kral et al. [1]). SPI is a drought index based on the probability of precipitation for a given accumulation period as defined by McKee et al. [2]. SPI is calculated for different accumulation periods: 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 months. Each of these is in turn calculated for each of the twelve calendar months. Note that values in monthly (and for longer accumulation periods also annual) time series of the data therefore are likely to be autocorrelated. The standard period which was used to fit the gamma distribution is 1961-2010. The dataset covers the period from 1862 to 2015. NOTE: the difference between this dataset with the previously published dataset 'Standardised Precipitation Index time series for IHU Groups (1961-2012)' [SPI_IHU_groups] (Tanguy et al., 2015 [3]), apart from the temporal extent, is the underlying rainfall data from which SPI was calculated. In the previously published dataset, CEH-GEAR (Keller et al., 2015 [4], Tanguy et al., 2014 [5]) was used, whereas in this new version, Met Office 5km rainfall grids were used (see supporting information for more details). Within Historic Droughts project (grant number: NE/L01016X/1), the Met Office has digitised historic rainfall and temperature data to produce high quality historic rainfall and temperature grids, which motivated the change in the underlying data to calculate SPI. The methodology to calculate SPI is the same in the two datasets. [1] Kral, F., Fry, M., Dixon, H. (2015). Integrated Hydrological Units of the United Kingdom: Groups. NERC-Environmental Information Data Centre doi:10.5285/f1cd5e33-2633-4304-bbc2-b8d34711d902 [2] McKee, T. B., Doesken, N. J., Kleist, J. (1993). The Relationship of Drought Frequency and Duration to Time Scales. Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology, 17-22 January 1993, Anaheim, California. [3] Tanguy, M.; Kral., F.; Fry, M.; Svensson, C.; Hannaford, J. (2015). Standardised Precipitation Index time series for Integrated Hydrological Units Groups (1961-2012). NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. [4] Keller, V. D. J., Tanguy, M., Prosdocimi, I., Terry, J. A., Hitt, O., Cole, S. J., Fry, M., Morris, D. G., and Dixon, H.: CEH-GEAR: 1 km resolution daily and monthly areal rainfall estimates for the UK for hydrological use, Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., 8, 83-112, doi:10.5194/essdd-8-83-2015, 2015. [5] Tanguy, M.; Dixon, H.; Prosdocimi, I.; Morris, D. G.; Keller, V. D. J. (2014). Gridded estimates of daily and monthly areal rainfall for the United Kingdom (1890-2012) [CEH-GEAR]. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • The data contains nitrogen (N) offtake, N emissions (ammonia and nitrous oxide), soil parameters (pH, EC, NH4+, NO3−), biomass and grain production from a winter wheat field experiment located at Bangor University (Henfaes Research Station in North Wales) and Rothamsted Research (North Wyke (NW) in Devon). Data were collected between April 2017 and August 2017. Measurements and soil and plant samples were taken from 45 plots in a randomized complete block design. Sixteen extra mini-plots at the prevailing wind (south westerly) edge of the experiment site were used at NW for NH3 volatilization measurements. The treatments were control (C, without N application), food based digestate (D), food based digestate + the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole (DMPP; D+NI), acidified food based digestate (AD), acidified food based digestate + the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole (DMPP; AD+NI). Four rates of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3; 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg N ha−1) were applied to compare yields and fertilizer replacement rate of the digestate treatments (targeted at 190 kg N ha−1). Soil pH, soil electrical conductivity (EC), soil NH4+ and soil NO3−, NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions were measured periodically for C, D, D+NI, AD and AD+NI and nitrogen concentration in grain and straw, grain yield and plant biomass for all treatments. Nitrogen offtake, losses and fluxes were used to determine the N use efficiency (NUE) and fertilizer replacement rate of the digestate treatments. Measurements were undertaken by members of staff from Bangor University, School of Environment, Natural Resources & Geography and Rothamsted Research, Sustainable Agricultural Sciences – North Wyke. Data was collected for the Newton Fund project “UK-China Virtual Joint Centre for Improved Nitrogen Agronomy”. Funded by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and NERC - Ref BB/N013468/1 Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset consists of the 25m raster version of the Land Cover Map 2015 (LCM2015) for Great Britain. The 25m raster product consists of two bands: Band 1 - raster representation of the majority (dominant) class per polygon for 21 target habitat classes; Band 2 - mean per polygon probability as reported by the Random Forest classifier (see supporting information). The 21 target classes are based on the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) Broad Habitats, which encompass the entire range of UK habitats. This dataset is derived from the vector version of the Land Cover Map, which contains individual parcels of land cover and is the highest available spatial resolution. The 25m raster is the most detailed of the LCM2015 raster products both thematically and spatially, and it is used to derive the 1km products. LCM2015 is a land cover map of the UK which was produced at the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology by classifying satellite images from 2014 and 2015 into 21 Broad Habitat-based classes. LCM2015 consists of a range of raster and vector products and users should familiarise themselves with the full range (see related records, the CEH web site and the LCM2015 Dataset documentation) to select the product most suited to their needs. LCM2015 was produced at the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology by classifying satellite images from 2014 and 2015 into 21 Broad Habitat-based classes. It is one of a series of land cover maps, produced by UKCEH since 1990. They include versions in 1990, 2000, 2007, 2015, 2017, 2018 and 2019. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset provides a 1km resolution raster (gridded) coverage of wooded areas in riparian zones (river- or streamsides) across Great Britain. The areas classified as riparian in this dataset are defined by a 50 metre buffer applied to the CEH 1:50000 watercourse network. Wooded areas within this zone are identified as those classified by the Land Cover Map of Great Britain 2007 as either coniferous or deciduous woodland. The data are aggregated to a 1km resolution. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset is a model output from the JULES land surface model driven with the Watch Forcing Data methodology applied to Era-Interim (WFDEI) data. It provides monthly global methane emissions from natural wetlands on 0.5 x 0.5 degree grid between 1980-2014. It includes the following variables: - fch4_wetl: modelled methane flux from natural wetland, in mg CH4 m-2 day-1 - fwetl: fraction of wetland - cs: soil carbon in each of these four soil carbon pools: decomposable plant material, resistant plant material, microbial biomass and humus), in kg m-2 - t_soil: sub-surface temperature of the four modelled soil layers (0-0.1 m, 0.1-0.35 m, 0.35-1.0 m and 1.0-2.0 m), in K Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • Data showing groundwater temperature and levels from bore holes are presented. The data were collected from a field experiment in the Conwy catchment between December 2013 and June 2015. Data were recorded by pressure transducers installed in the bore holes. The data were collected by trained members of staff from Bangor University and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. The samples were taken to estimate the hydraulic pathways and velocities through an experimental hillslope. The data were collected for the NERC project 'The Multi-Scale Response of Water quality, Biodiversity and Carbon Sequestration to Coupled Macronutrient Cycling from Source to Sea' (NE/J011991/1). The project is also referred to as Turf2Surf. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset contains measured daily values of precipitation, air and soil temperature, soil water content, measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) fluxes using eddy covariance, calculated gross primary production (GPP), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and net biome production (NBP) fluxes using an online tool (, measured fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide using static chambers and measured fluxes of nitrous oxide using eddy covariance, measured fluxes of nitrogen oxides (NOx) using automatic chambers, measured nitrogen and carbon leaching, livestock density, nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) input from mineral and organic fertiliser and yield of a managed grassland (Easterbush, 03°02'W, 55°52' N, 190 m a.s.l ) in South East Scotland. Data were collected between January 2002 and December 2010. Furthermore the dataset contains one off soil carbon and nitrogen data collected in 2004 and 2010. The dataset also contains monthly dry N deposition data from a field nearby Easterbush (about 300 m distance) measured with a DELTA system from 2002-2010. The data were collected as part of the three European projects GREENGRASS (EC EVK2-CT2001-00105), the NitroEurope Integrated Project (contract 017841) and CarboEurope (Contract No. GOCE-CT-2003-505572). Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This resource comprises a time series dataset of ant and other invertebrate abundance measured fortnightly at bait monitoring cards on an experimental plot in the Maliau Basin Conservation Area, Malaysian Borneo. The resource includes data regarding the amount of food resource removed from experimental plots when either ants or vertebrates were excluded from the resource. The data were collected to assess the roles that the different groups (ants, invertebrates, vertebrates) play in ecosystem function, and the capacity for functional redundancy within and between these groups. Data were collected between 2014 and 2016 during a project run by the University of Liverpool, which was part of the NERC Human-modified tropical forest (HMTF) Programme. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset contains the Standardised Streamflow Index (SSI) data for 303 catchments across the United Kingdom from 1891 to 2015. The SSI is a drought index based on the cumulative probability of a given monthly mean streamflow occurring for a given catchment. Here, the SSI is calculated for the following accumulation periods: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Each accumulation period is calculated for calendar end-months. The standard period used to fit the Tweedie distribution is 1961-2010. The SSI was produced by the RCUK-funded Historic Droughts project in order to characterise and explore hydrological drought severity over the period 1891-2015. This dataset is an outcome of the Historic Droughts Project (grant number: NE/L01016X/1). Full details about this dataset can be found at