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  • To better-understand natural hydroclimate variability and to help place recent climatic change within a longer-term perspective, a reconstruction of summer precipitation was developed based upon the oxygen isotope ratios of precisely-dated latewood alpha-cellulose from oak tree rings. Oxygen isotopes in precipitation are closely related to precipitation variability across the UK, enabling the reconstruction to be used to extend May to August precipitation totals for the England and Wales precipitation series back to 1201CE. The agreement between instrumental and reconstructed values is unusually strong, with more than half of the variance explained and standard verification tests passed. The stability of this relationship is confirmed using split-period calibration and verification. This allows the reconstruction to be variance-scaled to the full length of the England and Wales instrumental series back to 1766CE. Near-constant replication, with a minimum of ten timbers sourced from historic buildings across central southern England ensures signal strength does not change over time. Summers during the late 20th century appear anomalously dry and those of the 21st century very close to the pre-20th century average with no evidence in the record of prolonged 'megadroughts' across England and Wales.

  • This dataset reports results on seedling growth and survival for two hyphal exclusion experiments in a subtropical forest. The data include survival status, height, total biomass and the biomass of component plant parts, percentage root colonisation by mycorrhizas, for tree seedlings of ten common species including five ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and five arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species, which were transplanted in the in-growth cores with windows covering different sizes of nylon meshes (35 vs. 0.5 µm). The dataset provides raw data on growth and survival metrics for each seedling, plus identifying codes for the dominant sites where the experiments were conducted, as well as experimental block, mesh treatment, botanical names for the tree species, and mycorrhizal type. The data were entered into Excel spreadsheets and exported as comma separated value files (csv). Study area - the Heishiding Nature Reserve (111°53’E, 23°27’N, 150-927 m a.s.l.) in Guangdong Province of south China. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset provides UK maps of baseline prior uncertainty (UQ) in fluxes of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide, CO2 (2014-15) and methane, CH4 (2015). Spatial maps of these GHG emissions are produced annually in the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) but it is important to quantify uncertainty in these maps. These uncertainty estimates come from sectoral uncertainty data provided by the NAEI. Here, we propagate the uncertainty in the maps for each of the sectors contributing to the emissions using a Monte Carlo method, in order to quantify the uncertainty in the total emissions spatially. The Monte Carlo method employed here uses a novel approach (Nearest Neighbour Gaussian Process) to make calculations computationally affordable. These estimate the influence on the overall uncertainty of unknown errors in the model structure. Further details of the methodology used here can be found in the supporting documentation included with this data. In the near term, this methodology will be used and developed further in the NERC-funded project, DARE-UK (NE/S003614/1), to update UQ in maps of CO2 and CH4 for the UK. For that work and in general, it is useful to have a baseline prior uncertainty quantification against which future UK maps of uncertainty in CO2 and CH4 fluxes can be compared. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • The R code "carbon_stock_calculations.R" estimates aboveground carbon stocks for 49 plots in 14 fragmented forest sites and 4 continuous forest sites in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, using the vegetation dataset ‘Vegetation and habitat data for fragmented and continuous forest sites in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, 2017’. The 14 fragmented sites were all in Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil-certified oil palm plantations, and are hereafter termed 'conservation set-asides'. The code also estimates the aboveground carbon stocks of oil palm plantations for comparison. The R code "analyses_and_figures.R" runs analyses and makes figures of aboveground carbon stocks and associated plant diversity for these sites, as presented in Fleiss et al. (2020) This R code was created in order to investigate the following: (1) to establish the value of conservation set-asides for increasing oil palm plantation aboveground carbon stocks; (2) to establish whether set-asides with high aboveground carbon stocks can have co-benefits for plant diversity; (3) to compare the carbon stocks and vegetation structure of conservation set-asides with that of continuous forest, including assessing tree regeneration potential by examining variation in seedling density; (4) to examine potential drivers of variation in aboveground carbon stocks of conservation set-asides (topography, degree of fragmentation, and soil parameters); (5) to scale-up the estimates of the aboveground carbon stocks of conservation set-asides, in order to predict average carbon stocks of oil palm plantations with and without set-asides, and for varying coverage of set-asides across the plantation. Full details about this application can be found at

  • Gridded land use map of Peninsular Malaysia with a resolution of approximate 25 meters for the year 2018. The map includes nine different classes: 1) non-paddy agriculture, 2) paddy fields, 3) rural residential, 4) urban residential, 5) commercial/institutional, 6) industrial/infrastructure, 7) roads, 8) urban and 9) others. The land use map was created as part of the project “Malaysia - Flood Impact Across Scales”. The project is funded under the Newton-Ungku Omar Fund ‘Understanding of the Impacts of Hydrometeorological Hazards in South East Asia’ call. The grant was jointly awarded by the Natural Environment Research Council and the MYPAIR Scheme under the Ministry of Higher Education of Malaysia. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • Data comprise tree trait data collected during September and October 2016 (the peak dry season), in the Caxiuanã National Forest Reserve, eastern Amazon, Brazil. 17 traits (including plot type, tree species name, diameter at breast height, tree light score, carboxylation capacity, electron transport capacity, leaf respiration in the dark, stomatal conductance, stem CO2 efflux, leaf mass per area, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus content, branch wood density, leaf water potential, xylem pressure, lumen conductance, percentage loss of conductivity, hydraulic Safety Margin and leaf area to sapwood area ratio) of 176 trees (most common genera) were sampled across two experimental plots: a one-hectare through-fall exclusion plot with a plastic panel structure that excludes 50% of the canopy through-fall and has done since 2002 and a corresponding one-hectare control plot without any drought structure. This data comes from the Caxiuanã through-fall exclusion (TFE) experiment located in the terra firma forest, on yellow oxisol soils at 15 m above sea level, with a mean annual rainfall between 2,000–2,500 mm and a pronounced dry season between June and November. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • These datasets provide Concentration Based Estimated Deposition (CBED) values of nitrogen, sulphur and base cations deposition for 5x5 kilometre (km) grid squares of the UK averaged over the years 1986 to 2012. The data consist of deposition values for sulphur, oxidised nitrogen and reduced nitrogen, and base cations. Total deposition is the sum of four components calculated separately: wet deposition, dry deposition of gases, dry deposition of particulate matter and cloud droplet deposition. Habitat-specific data are provided for (i) moorland/short vegetation, and (ii) forest. Additionally, the grid square average over multiple land cover types (i.e. arable, grassland, forest, moorland, urban) is also calculated. The habitat-specific data are recommended for use with critical loads for the calculation of critical load exceedances. The work in generating and compiling the dataset has been funded by the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH) and various Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (Defra) contracts. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset contains breakthrough curves of conservative (fluorescein) and reactive (resazurin and resorufin) tracers resulting from instantaneous tracer experiments in a lowland agricultural stream. Breakthrough curves were measured seasonally at four locations within the stream, creating three experimental reaches, in the Wood Brook, Staffordshire from July 2016 to March 2017. Breakthrough curves were measured in-situ using on-line fluorometers configured to measure the excitation of fluorescein, resazurin and resorufin every 10 seconds. The breakthrough curves were measured to determine hydrological metrics of advective transport, transient storage and aerobic respiration. The work was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council, UK through a through a Central England NERC Training Alliance Studentship and grant NE/ L004437/1, with additional funding provided by the European Union through the H2020-MSCA-RISE-2016 project 734317. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • [This dataset is embargoed until December 1, 2021]. This dataset contains terrestrial fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and ecosystem respiration (carbon dioxide (CO2)) calculated from static chamber measurements in mature oil palm plantations on mineral soil, managed by Sinar Mas Agro Resources and Technology Research Institute (SMARTRI) and located on the Ujung Tanjung Estate in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia. Measurements were made monthly, from October 2018 until September 2019. A total of 54 static chambers were installed across nine plots, representing three different understory vegetation treatments: normal complexity (an intermediate-level of understory spraying with herbicide); reduced complexity (spraying of all understory vegetation with herbicides); and enhanced complexity (no herbicide spraying and limited understory cutting). Six chambers were installed in each of the nine plots, resulting in 18 replicates of each treatment. In addition, soil moisture measurements were also taken around each chamber. The dataset was associated with a foreign research permit, issued by Foreign Research Permit Division Ministry of Research and Technology/National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia. As the project spanned two years it was covered by two permits, RISTEK permit number: 323/SIP/FRP/E5/Dit.KI/X/2018 and RISTEK permit number: 8B/TKPIPA/E5/Dit.KI/VIII/2019. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • Monthly sampling of cave drip and lake water from St Michaels Cave and Ragged Staff Cave, Gibraltar.