This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project Fault Seal Controls on Aquifer CO2 Storage Capacity was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-14. Structural traps for storage of supercritical CO2 will commonly rely on a component of fault seal. Faults are among the most important natural potential migration pathways for buoyant fluids stored in reservoir rocks. Failure of storage integrity may occur either by mechanical failure or by flow across faults due to geometric juxtaposition of the reservoir against similarly permeable rocks and/or lack of a low permeability fault gouge. This project aimed to reduce uncertainty relating to the sealing capacity of faults affecting prospective North Sea saline aquifers, by: • Studying the controls on fault seal capability in naturally-occurring fault-bound CO2 accumulations (Fizzy and Oak), • Assessing the geomechanical stability of faults affecting an important saline aquifer offshore UK (Captain Sandstone), • Investigating the characteristics of apparently hydraulically-conductive faults in the North Sea (Netherlands).
The data consists of a poster presented at 'The Fourth International Conference on Fault and Top Seals', Almeria, Spain, 20-24th September 2015. The poster describes work carried-out on behalf of the 'Fault seal controls on CO2 storage capacity in aquifers' project funded by the UKCCS Research Centre, grant number UKCCSRC-C1-14. The CO2-rich St. Johns Dome reservoir in Arizona provides a useful analogue for leaking CO2 storage sites, and the abstract describes an analysis of the fault-seal behaviour at the site as well as at the UK Fizzy and Oak CO2-rich gas Fields
This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Experimental investigation and CFD modelling of oxy-coal combustion, was presented at the Sheffield Biannual, 08.04.13. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-27.
This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project Flexible CCS Network Development (FleCCSnet) was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-40. The aim of the project was to carry out research to enable the production of design and operating guidelines for CCS pipeline networks in order that these networks can react effectively to short, medium and long term variations in the availability and flow of CO2 from capture plants and also to the constraints imposed on the system by the ability (or otherwise) of CO2 storage facilities to accept variable flow. The amount of CO2 captured at a power station is expected to become more variable in the future as the electricity grid brings in more and more intermittent renewable energy (meaning a conventional power station is temporarily not needed or in reduced operation as the renewable energy takes precedent). The storage site will also face periods of maintenance which will impose constraints on the flow into the store and it is also important to look at the case of upset conditions in order to be able to predict any potential problems. Solutions to these all these issues need to be factored into the design of the CCS network, the focus of the project was to identify the issues surrounding flexibility and explore some of them.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has emerged as a promising means of lowering CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. However, concerns about the possibility of harmful CO2 leakage are contributing to slow widespread adoption of the technology. Research to date has failed to identify a cheap and effective means of unambiguously identifying leakage of CO2 injected, or a viable means of identifying ownership of it. This means that in the event of a leak from a storage site that multiple operators have injected into, it is impossible to determine whose CO2 is leaking. The on-going debate regarding leakage and how to detect it has been frequently documented in the popular press and scientific publications. This has contributed to public confusion and fear, particularly close to proposed storage sites, causing the cancellation of several large storage projects such as that at Barendrecht in the Netherlands. One means to reduce public fears over CCS is to demonstrate a simple method which is able to reliably detect the leakage of CO2 from a storage site and determine the ownership of that CO2. Measurements of noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon) and the ratios of light and heavy stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in natural CO2 fields have shown how CO2 is naturally stored over millions of years. Noble gases have also proved to be effective at identifying the natural leakage of CO2 above a CO2 reservoir in Arizona and an oil field in Wyoming and in ruling out the alleged leakage of CO2 from the Weyburn storage site in Canada. Recent research has shown amounts of krypton are enhanced relative to those of argon and helium in CO2 captured from a nitrate fertiliser plant in Brazil. This enrichment is due to the greater solubility of the heavier noble gases, so they are more readily dissolved into the solvent used for capture. This fingerprint has been shown to act as an effective means of tracking CO2 injected into Brazilian and USA oil fields to increase oil production. Similar enrichments in heavy noble gases, along with high helium concentrations are well documented in coals, coal-bed methane and in organic rich oil and gas source rocks. As noble gases are unreactive, these enrichments will not be affected by burning the gas or coal in a power station and hence will be passed onto the flue gases. Samples of CO2 obtained from an oxyfuel pilot CO2 capture plant at Lacq in France which contain helium and krypton enrichments well above atmospheric values confirm this. Despite identification of these distinctive fingerprints, no study has yet investigated if there is a correlation between them and different CO2 capture technologies or the fossil fuel being burnt. We propose to measure the carbon and oxygen stable isotope and noble gas fingerprint in captured CO2 from post, pre and oxyfuel pilot capture plants. We will find out if unique fingerprints arise from the capture technology used or fuel being burnt. We will determine if these fingerprints are distinctive enough to track the CO2 once it is injected underground without the need of adding expense artificial tracers. We will investigate if they are sufficient to distinguish ownership of multiple CO2 streams injected into the same storage site and if they can provide an early warning of unplanned CO2 movement out of the storage site. Grant number: EP/K036033/1.
The project will three-dimensionally image hydraulically conductive features in the reservoir, caprock and overburden of an active CO2 injection site: the Aquistore site, Canada. Our research will provide important information on potential migration pathways within the storage complex to inform future monitoring strategies at the Aquistore site and at future storage sites. We will monitor micro-seismic events prior to, and during, CO2 injection using a three-component nanoseismic surface monitoring array which will complement data collected by the existing geophone network at the site. This analysis can be used to provide deep focussed monitoring information on permeability enhancement near the injection point. As injection continues it will also enable imaging of any flowing features within the caprock. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-19.
This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Determination of water Solubility in CO2 Mixtures, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 21.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-21.
We aim to de-risk the development of the major potential CO2 storage reservoirs in the UK sector of the Northern and Central North Sea by developing our understanding of the geometry and properties of the overburden above the potential reservoirs (including their seals), and by developing an understanding of the likely hydraulic connectivity in the reservoirs, surrounding strata and overburden and hence the likely flow paths for CO2 and formation brine within and between them. These reservoirs are some of the most widespread and internally hydraulically well-connected reservoirs on the UK Continental Shelf and appear to have excellent potential for high injectivity, large capacity without excessive pressure rise and, in some cases, good containment. Consequently, they promise to be of great significance if CCS becomes a major greenhouse gas mitigation technology in the UK. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-30.
This data contains the output from the first Flexible CCS Network Development (FleCCSnet) workshop of stakeholders discussing the development of CO2 networks in the UK. The first was held on the 30 April 2014 at the University of Edinburgh, UK. The purpose of Workshop 1 was to identify and confirm the key questions to be considered in order to understand the most likely impacts of variability in the CO2 sources and variability in CO2 sinks on CO2 transport system design and operation. There were a total of 21 attendees including 7 representatives from PSE, Scottish Power, BP, SCCS, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Element Energy, and AMEC. The dataset consists of two reports. The first report, 'Developing CO2 networks: Key lessons learnt from the first Flexible CCS Network Development (FleCCSnet) project workshop', summarises the workshop findings, which have been used to create a series of scenarios that were investigated by transient simulation. The scenarios developed are described in the second report, 'Developing CO2 networks: Scenarios building on the first Flexible CCS Network Development (FleCCSnet) project workshop'.
This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project Oxyfuel and exhaust gas recirculation processes in gas turbine combustion for improved carbon capture performance was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-26. This research is concerned with oxyfuel combustion in gas turbine applications, in particular concentrating on the use of modern swirl-stabilised burners. Oxyfuel is considered a particularly challenging idea, since the resultant burning velocity and flame temperatures will be significantly higher than what might be deemed as a practical or workable technology. For this reason it is widely accepted that EGR-derived CO2 will be used as a diluent and moderator for the reaction (in essence replacing the role of atmospheric nitrogen). The key challenges in developing oxyfuel gas turbine technology are therefore: • Flame stability at high temperatures and burning rates. • The use of CO2 as a combustion diluent. • Potential for CO emission into the capture plant. • Wide or variable operating envelopes across diluent concentrations. • Differences in the properties of N2 and CO2 giving rise to previously unmeasured flame heat release locations.