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  • The CO2CARE (CO2 Site Closure Assessment REsearch) project focused on site closure and preparation for transfer of liability of a CO2 storage project in order to assist regulatory authorities and stakeholders in implementing the EU Directive 2009/31/EC on CO2 Geological Storage. The project, which started in January 2011, was funded by the EU 7th Framework Programme and the industry and ran for a period of three years until December 2013. CO2CARE consisted of an international consortium of 23 partners from Europe, USA, Canada, Japan and Australia, represented by universities, research institutes, and energy companies. In order to incorporate up-to-date results and monitoring data 9 key injection sites in Europe and worldwide formed an integral part of the project: (1) Ketzin, Germany; (2) Sleipner, Norway; (3) K12-B, The Netherlands; (4) Rousse, France; (5) Montmiral, France; (6) Frio, USA; (7) Wallula, USA; (8) Nagaoka, Japan and (9) Otway, Australia. Project website: http://www.co2care.org/

  • The data presented here contains the experimental X-ray CT dataset used for the paper "Characterising Drainage Multiphase flow in Heterogeneous Sandstones" by Jackson, Krevor et al (DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/WCXNY), along with CMG IMEX modelling files. Core averaged pressure data and saturations, along with 1D saturation profiles are available in the supporting information fle. CT data is provided in the four '..._scans' folders. These contain reconstructed .dicom tomographs from X-ray CT imaging with native resolution 0.234375mm x 0.234375mm. The image thickness is 5mm for the Bentheimer and 3mm for the Bunter. Each files contains 3x scans for each fractional flow. Dry, water, brine equilibrated with CO2 (labelled SW), nitrogen and CO2 background scans are also provided, which are obtained after single phase core flooding. CMG IMEX .dat files contain the necesary input files for CMG IMEX to run the numerical core flood simulations (the low flow rate core flood examples are included). These have associated .inc files for the 3D capillary pressure scaling (the end point of the capillary pressure curve at irreducible water saturation) and the 3D porosity map. These are read into the simulation files on execution. The porosity and capillary pressure files are for the final, full length rock cores used to produce the main figures in the paper (Figure 5 onwards). The outputs from the CMG IMEX simulation can be read into the 3D results viewer where 3D saturations and pressure drops are obtained. This work was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (Grant number: NE/N016173/1).

  • Bibliographic Data - Oral and Poster Presentations given by members of Work Package 5 of the HydroFrame (Hydromechanical and Biogeochemical Processes in Fractured Rock Masses in the Vicinity of a Geological Disposal Facility for Radioactive Waste) project. Presentations given between November 2014 and November 2016.

  • Peer reviewed paper published in the journal Petroleum Geoscience - the paper describes work carried-out on behalf of the 'Fault seal controls on CO2 storage capacity in aquifers' project funded by the UKCCS Research Centre, grant number UKCCSRC-C1-14. The geomechanical stability of faults affecting the Captain Sandstone and its overburden in the Inner Moray Firth region is investigated in terms of the ability of the faulted reservoir to safely store CO2. Also available online at http://pg.lyellcollection.org/content/22/3/211.full.

  • Carbon capture and storage is a mitigation strategy that can be used to aid the reduction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. This process aims to capture CO2 from large point-source emitters and transport it to a long-term storage site. For much of Europe, these deep storage sites are anticipated to be sited below the sea bed on continental shelves. A key operational requirement is an understanding of best practice of monitoring for potential leakage and of the environmental impact that could result from a diffusive leak from a storage complex. Here we describe a controlled CO2 release experiment beneath the seabed, which overcomes the limitations of laboratory simulations and natural analogues. The complex processes involved in setting up the experimental facility and ensuring its successful operation are discussed, including site selection, permissions, communications and facility construction. The experimental design and observational strategy are reviewed with respect to scientific outcomes along with lessons learnt in order to facilitate any similar future. This is a publication in QICS Special Issue - International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Peter Taylor et. al. Doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.09.007.

  • Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has emerged as a promising means of lowering CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. However, concerns about the possibility of harmful CO2 leakage are contributing to slow widespread adoption of the technology. Research to date has failed to identify a cheap and effective means of unambiguously identifying leakage of CO2 injected, or a viable means of identifying ownership of it. This means that in the event of a leak from a storage site that multiple operators have injected into, it is impossible to determine whose CO2 is leaking. The on-going debate regarding leakage and how to detect it has been frequently documented in the popular press and scientific publications. This has contributed to public confusion and fear, particularly close to proposed storage sites, causing the cancellation of several large storage projects such as that at Barendrecht in the Netherlands. One means to reduce public fears over CCS is to demonstrate a simple method which is able to reliably detect the leakage of CO2 from a storage site and determine the ownership of that CO2. Measurements of noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon) and the ratios of light and heavy stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in natural CO2 fields have shown how CO2 is naturally stored over millions of years. Noble gases have also proved to be effective at identifying the natural leakage of CO2 above a CO2 reservoir in Arizona and an oil field in Wyoming and in ruling out the alleged leakage of CO2 from the Weyburn storage site in Canada. Recent research has shown amounts of krypton are enhanced relative to those of argon and helium in CO2 captured from a nitrate fertiliser plant in Brazil. This enrichment is due to the greater solubility of the heavier noble gases, so they are more readily dissolved into the solvent used for capture. This fingerprint has been shown to act as an effective means of tracking CO2 injected into Brazilian and USA oil fields to increase oil production. Similar enrichments in heavy noble gases, along with high helium concentrations are well documented in coals, coal-bed methane and in organic rich oil and gas source rocks. As noble gases are unreactive, these enrichments will not be affected by burning the gas or coal in a power station and hence will be passed onto the flue gases. Samples of CO2 obtained from an oxyfuel pilot CO2 capture plant at Lacq in France which contain helium and krypton enrichments well above atmospheric values confirm this. Despite identification of these distinctive fingerprints, no study has yet investigated if there is a correlation between them and different CO2 capture technologies or the fossil fuel being burnt. We propose to measure the carbon and oxygen stable isotope and noble gas fingerprint in captured CO2 from post, pre and oxyfuel pilot capture plants. We will find out if unique fingerprints arise from the capture technology used or fuel being burnt. We will determine if these fingerprints are distinctive enough to track the CO2 once it is injected underground without the need of adding expense artificial tracers. We will investigate if they are sufficient to distinguish ownership of multiple CO2 streams injected into the same storage site and if they can provide an early warning of unplanned CO2 movement out of the storage site. Grant number: EP/K036033/1.

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) injection into deep saline aquifers is governed by a number of physico-chemical processes including mineral dissolution and precipitation, multiphase fluid flow, and capillary trapping. These processes can be coupled, however, the impact of fluid-rock reaction on the multiphase flow properties is difficult to study and is not simply correlated to variation in rock porosity. We observed the impact of rock mineral dissolution on multiphase flow properties in two carbonate rocks with distinct pore structures. The Ketton carbonate was an ooidal limestone with a distinct bimodal pore structure whereas the Estaillades limestone was a bioclastic limestone with a wide range of pore sizes. Observations of steady state N2-water relative permeability and residual trapping were obtained at 100 bars fluid pressure and 22°C, with X-ray tomography used to estimate fluid saturation. These tests alternated with steps in which mineral was uniformly dissolved into solution from the rock cores using an aqueous solution with a temperature controlled acid. Eight alternating sequences of dissolution and flow measurement were performed, with on average 0.5% of the mass of the rocks dissolved at each stage. A sequence of mercury injection capillary pressure measurements were conducted on a parallel set of samples undergoing the same treatment to characterize the evolving pore size distribution and corresponding capillary pressure characteristics. Variations in the multiphase flow properties were observed to correspond to the changes in the underlying pore structure. In the Ketton carbonate, dissolution resulted in an increase of the fraction of pore volume made up by the smallest pores and a corresponding increase in the fraction made up by the largest pores. This resulted in a systematic increase in the relative permeability to the nonwetting phase and decrease in relative permeability of the wetting phase. There was also a modest but systematic decrease in residual trapping. In the Estaillades carbonate, dissolution resulted in an increase in the fraction of pore volume made up by pores in the central range of the initial pore size distribution, and a corresponding decrease in the fraction made up by both the smallest and largest pores. This resulted in a decrease in the relative permeability to both the wetting and nonwetting fluid phases and no discernible impact on the residual trapping. In summary, the impact of rock matrix dissolution will be strongly dependent on the impact of that dissolution on the underlying pore structure of the rock. However, if the variation in pore structure can be observed or estimated with modelling, then it should be possible to estimate the impacts on multiphase flow properties.

  • Data recorded during hydrostatic pressurisation and triaxial rock deformation experiments of Westerly granite and Darley Dale sandstone. Data consists of mechanical data (load, displacement, confining pressure) and pore pressure data (up- and downstream pore pressure, upstream intensifier volume, four pore pressure transducers mounted on sample). Contains all data necessary to evaluate the results presented in the paper entitled: 'Fluid pressure heterogeneity during fluid flow in rocks: New laboratory measurement device and method' by Brantut and Aben, submitted to Geophysical Journal International, and available at arXiv (arXiv:2006.16699).

  • This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project QICS2 Scoping Project: Exploring the Viability and Scientific Opportunities of a Follow-On Marine Impact Project was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-31. The world's first sub-seabed CO2 release experiment was completed in 2014, offshore from Oban (Scotland). The project, known as QICS (Quantifying and Monitoring Potential Ecosystem Impacts of Geological Storage), mimicked the formation of a small-scale CO2 leak into sediments near the seabed. In 2012, CO2 was continuously injected into the sediments for 37 days, releasing a total of 4.2 tonnes of CO2. The QICS1 experiment was first of its kind, and was highly successful, enabling: i. field testing of monitoring technologies to detect CO2 against a measured baseline ii. assessment of environmental and ecosystem impacts of leaked CO2 (within the sediment and water column) iii. the flow and fate of CO2 in sediments, and dispersion and dilution of CO2 in seawater, to be explored.

  • This presentation on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project Advanced Sorbents for CCS via Controlled Sintering was presented at the UKCCSRC Manchester Biannual Meeting, 13.04.2016. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-206.