This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project Fault Seal Controls on Aquifer CO2 Storage Capacity was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-14. Structural traps for storage of supercritical CO2 will commonly rely on a component of fault seal. Faults are among the most important natural potential migration pathways for buoyant fluids stored in reservoir rocks. Failure of storage integrity may occur either by mechanical failure or by flow across faults due to geometric juxtaposition of the reservoir against similarly permeable rocks and/or lack of a low permeability fault gouge. This project aimed to reduce uncertainty relating to the sealing capacity of faults affecting prospective North Sea saline aquifers, by: • Studying the controls on fault seal capability in naturally-occurring fault-bound CO2 accumulations (Fizzy and Oak), • Assessing the geomechanical stability of faults affecting an important saline aquifer offshore UK (Captain Sandstone), • Investigating the characteristics of apparently hydraulically-conductive faults in the North Sea (Netherlands).
This document is part of the second phase of the Saline Aquifer CO2 Storage (SACS2) project. It describes the results of Task 5.6 of Work Area 5 (Geophysics): Feasibility of multicomponent data acquisition. The aim of this Task is to evaluate the feasibility of multicomponent seismic data for monitoring the development and movement of the CO2 bubble during CO2 injection into the Utsira Sand at the Sleipner Field, North Sea. The report can be downloaded from http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/10270/.
The data consists of a poster presented at 'The Fourth International Conference on Fault and Top Seals', Almeria, Spain, 20-24th September 2015. The poster describes work carried-out on behalf of the 'Fault seal controls on CO2 storage capacity in aquifers' project funded by the UKCCS Research Centre, grant number UKCCSRC-C1-14. The CO2-rich St. Johns Dome reservoir in Arizona provides a useful analogue for leaking CO2 storage sites, and the abstract describes an analysis of the fault-seal behaviour at the site as well as at the UK Fizzy and Oak CO2-rich gas Fields
This is the final report of the Natural Analogues for the Geological Storage of CO2 in the Geological Environment (NASCENT) project. The NASCENT project has studied natural accumulations of carbon dioxide as analogues of the geological storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. http://www.ieaghg.org/docs/General_Docs/Reports/Report%202005_6%20NASCENT.pdf
In January 1993, as part of the Joule II Non-nuclear Energy Research Programme, the European Commission initiated a two year study of the potential for the disposal of industrial quantifies of carbon dioxide underground, with a view to reducing emissions to the atmosphere. The participants in the study were the British Geological Survey (UK), TNO Institute of Applied Geoscience (The Netherlands), BRGM (France), CRE Group Ltd (UK), IKU Petroleum Research (Norway), RWE AG (Germany), University of Sunderland Renewable Energy Centre (UK) and Statoil (Norway). The objective of the study was to examine whether carbon dioxide emissions from large point sources such as power stations, could be disposed of safely, economically and with no adverse effects on man and the environment. doi:10.1016/0196-8904(95)00308-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0196890495003088
The RISCS (Research into Impacts and Safety in CO2 Storage) project assessed the potential environmental impacts of leakage from geological CO2 storage. Consideration was given to possible impacts on groundwater resources and on near surface ecosystems both onshore and offshore. The aim of the project was to assist storage site operators and regulators in assessing the potential impacts of leakage so that these could be considered during all phases of a storage project (project design, site characterisation, site operation, post-operation and site abandonment, and following transfer of liability back to the state). A secondary objective was to inform policy makers, politicians and the general public of the feasibility and long-term benefits and consequences of large-scale CO2 capture and storage (CCS) deployment. The Final Report can be downloaded from http://cordis.europa.eu/docs/results/240/240837/final1-riscs-final-report-final.pdf.
Aqueous amine scrubbing was originally developed for natural gas treatment and is currently considered to be the current best available technology for post-combustion capture (PCC) of CO2 from both pulverised fuel (PF) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants. A major issue is the severe thermo-oxidative degradation of alkanomaine solvents that occurs in PCC compared to natural gas processing, with the problem being compounded by the presence of acid gases that lead to the formation of heat stable salts (HSS). The accumulation of degradation products is known to reduce CO2 capture efficiency and cause excessive foaming and fouling and unacceptably high corrosion rates. Current measures to compensate for degradation involves purging spent solvent solution for reclaimation, makeup with fresh amine and the addition of anti-foam and oxidation/corrosion inhibitors. Reclaimer technologies based on distillation, ion-exchange and elecrodialysis have been developed to deal primarily with HSS where distillation has the advantage of removing both the HSS and their anions (i.e. formate and acetate). However, these technologies do not deal with the majority of the other degradation products, particularly those arising from thermal and oxidative degradation. Further, it has generally recognised that MEA forms high boiling polymeric material where N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediamine (HEEDA), in particular, may continue to degrade in the presence of CO2 to form longer substituted ethlyenediamines. This proposal has been prompted by our extremely promising preliminary results that the thermal and oxidative degradation of an amine polymer (polyethyleneimine) can largely be reversed using both hydrogenation and hydrothermal (hydrous) treatments. We used non-catalytic hydropyrolysis and hydrous pyrolysis treatments at temperatures below 250oC which were clearly effective in reducing oxygen functionalities without causing any degradation of the polymer chain. The challenge is to partially reduce degraded amines to hydroxyamines and also, for polymeric forms, to induce some hydrogenolysis to reduce chain lengths. Hydrous pyrolysis has the potential advantage of not directly requiring hydrogen with water being the hydrogen source. Judicious choice of catalysts provides selectivity for hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis and research on amine degradation in natural gas sweetening has shown degradation products, such as N,N-bis(2-hydroxy-ethyl)piperazine and N,N,N-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine, can be converted back to hydroxyamines by a hydrotreating reactions . •Directly targeting a high research priority identified by the RAPID Handbook, the proposed research aims to investigate novel reductive approaches for rejuvenating spent amine solutions from PCC plants, namely selective catalytic hydrotreatments at modest temperatures and H2 pressures and hydrous pyrolysis (hydrothermal conversion). The specific objectives are: 1.To apply the hydrogenation/ hydropyrolysis and hydrothermal treatments to individual compounds, including 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-imidazolidone (HEIA), HEEDA, .N-(2-hydroxyethyl)acetamide and N-methylformamide 2.Based on the model compound results, to conduct experiments on actual fractions from degraded amine solvents, notably the residues from distillation containing HSS and the compounds targeted above; and 3.To use the results to define the overall benefits hydrogenation, hydropyrolysis and hydrothermal treatments in solvent rejuvenation and a basis for planning the subsequent research needed to take forward these new treatments, in terms of identifying how these treatments can best be conducted continuously. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-189.
Technical report, January 2016. Development of a Scottish CO2 Hub can unlock the potential for CCS in the UK and Europe by providing early access for CO2 captured in the North Sea Region to extensive, well-characterised storage in the Central North Sea (CNS) at low risk, while creating value through CO2 utilisation. Available for download at http://hdl.handle.net/1842/15700.
This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project Tractable equations of state for CO2 mixtures in CCS was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-22. A potential bottle-neck for CCS is the transport of CO2 from power plants to the storage location, by pipeline. Key to safe and inexpensive transport is a detailed understanding of the physical properties of carbon dioxide. However, no gas separation process is 100% efficient, and the resulting carbon dioxide contains a number of different impurities. These impurities can greatly influence the physical properties of the fluid compared to pure CO2. They have important design, safety and cost implications for the compression and transport of carbon dioxide. This project aimed to develop new methods to produce custom models (equations of state) for impure CO2 behaviour for CCS.
This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project Process-Performance Indexed Design of Ionic Liquids for Carbon Capture was presented at the CSLF Call project poster reception, London, 27.06.16. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-199. The elevated cost of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is currently hindering its implementation at large scale. We aim to design a 'perfect' solvent for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2). The design of the solvent is based on process performance indexes.