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    This dataset consists of silicon isotope data from deep-sea sediment cores taken off southeast Iceland. Samples of sea sponges were collected using piston cores and sediment cores aboard the RV Celtic Explorer in 2008 and dried or frozen for transportation. Organic matter was removed and samples were preserved for later analysis. Sample analysis occurred in 2012 as part of a comprehensive study of the carbon cycle. The data collected form the field component of the NERC-funded project "Unravelling the carbon cycle using silicon isotopes in the oceans". The project aimed to investigate deep sea sponges and the silicon they produce, in an effort to piece together the links between the supply of vital nutrients in different parts of the ocean and the crucial role other marine organisms play in absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere and storing it in deep sea sediments as organic carbon. The Discovery Science project was composed of New Investigators (FEC) Grant reference NE/J00474X/1 led by Dr. Katherine Rosemary Hendry of Cardiff University, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences. The project ran from 26 January 2012 to 30 September 2013. The silicon isotope data have been received by BODC as raw files, and will be processed and quality controlled using in-house BODC procedures and made available online in the near future. The raw files are available on request.

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    GreenSeas was an EU FP7 programme funded to advance the quantitative knowledge of how planktonic marine ecosystems, including phytoplankton, bacterioplankton and zooplankton, will respond to environmental and climate changes. To achieve this GreenSeas employed a combination of observation data, numerical simulations and a cross-disciplinary synthesis to develop a high quality, harmonized and standardized plankton and plankton ecology long time-series, data inventory and information service. This contribution to the programme developed a number of indices to characterize quantitatively the seasonality of phytoplankton (Platt and Sathyendranath, 2008, Racault et al., 2014a). Specifically, indices that relate to the study of timing of periodic biological events as influenced by the environment are referred to as phytoplankton phenology. These indices include: timings of initiation, peak, and termination as well as the duration of the phytoplankton growing period. Changes in phytoplankton phenology (triggered by variations in climate) can profoundly alter: (1) the efficiency of the biological pump, with inevitable impact of the global carbon cycle; and (2) the interactions across trophic levels, which can engender trophic mismatch with major impacts on the survival of commercially important fish and crustacean larvae. Phenology indices were estimated using the R2010.0 reprocessing of Level 3 Mapped chlorophyll-a concentration from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view (SeaWiFS) sensor. The chlorophyll-a data were retrieved from NASA Ocean Color Web for the period 1997-2008 at 9 km spatial resolution and 8-day temporal resolution. Linear interpolation was applied to map the chlorophyll-a concentration onto a 1degreex1degree fixed grid. The phenology indices were estimated following the method described in Racault et al. (2012). Missing chlorophyll-a data were reduced from the time-series prior to estimating the timing of ecological events. Missing values were filled by interpolating spatially adjacent values (average of 3 × 3 pixels on the 9km grid), when these were available. Any remaining missing values were filled by interpolating temporally adjacent values (average of previous and following 8-day composites), when these were available. Otherwise the value was not filled. A 3-week running mean was applied to remove small peaks in chlorophyll-a. The timings of initiation and end of the phytoplankton growing period were detected as the weeks when the chlorophyll concentration in a particular year rose above the long-term median value plus 5% and later fell below this same threshold (Racault et al., 2012). The duration of the growing season is defined as the number of weeks between initiation and end.

  • This dataset includes measurements of stem radial growth in 20 plots (250 x 10 m each) in the Brazilian Amazon. Study plots were distributed across a gradient of forest disturbance, including: undisturbed primary forests , logged primary forests, logged-and-burned primary forests, and secondary forests. Data were collected from December 2014 until October 2018. In December 2015, during the El Niño-mediated drought, eight of our study plots were affected by understory fires. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • Site indices, as a relative measure of the actual population size, for UK butterfly species calculated from data from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Site indices are a relative rather than an absolute measure of the size of a population, and have been shown to relate closely to other, more intensive, measures of population size such as mark, release, recapture (MRR) methods. The site index can be thought of as a relative measure of the actual population size, being a more or less constant proportion of the number of butterflies present. The proportion seen is likely to vary according to species; some butterfly species are more conspicuous and thus more easily detected, whereas others are much less easy to see. Site indices are only calculated at sites with sufficient monitoring visits throughout the season, or for targeted reduced effort surveys (timed observations, larval web counts and egg counts) where counts are generally obtained as close to the peak of the flight period as possible and are subsequently adjusted for the time of year and size of the site (area of suitable habitat type for a given species). Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (WCBS) sites are thus excluded because they are based on very few visits from which accurate indices of abundance cannot currently be calculated. For transect sites a statistical model (a General Additive Model, 'GAM') is used to impute missing values and to calculate a site index. Each year most transect sites (over 90%) produce an index for at least one species and in recent years site indices are calculated for almost 1,500 sites across the UK. Site indices are subsequently collated to contribute to the overall 'Collated Index' for each species, which are relative measures of the abundance of each species across a geographical area, for example, across the whole UK or at country level in England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. Individual site indices are important in informing conservation management as not all sites show the same patterns for each species and likely reflect a combination of local climate and habitat management at the site. Although the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) and Butterfly Conservation (BC) are responsible for the calculation and interpretation of site indices, the collection of the data used in its creation is ultimately reliant on a large volunteer community. The UKBMS is run by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) and the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), in partnership with the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), and supported and steered by Forestry Commission (FC), Natural England(NE), Natural Resources Wales (NRW), Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA), and Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • The dataset contains fruit counts (and counts of seeds within fruits), size measurements, and habitat characteristics for Pyracantha angustifolia, in Tafi Del Valle (Northwest Argentina). Data were obtained from field-based measurements of shrub characteristics in May 2019, when Pyracantha is fruiting. Also included are growth ring counts for shrubs of different sized used to predict the age of shrubs within the dataset. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. Moth data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Counts of individual species are recorded. These data are collected by moth traps at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol.They represent continuous nightly records from 1992 to 2012. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. Phenotypes (growth and phenology) for Scots pine trees in a long-term common garden trial planted in three sites in Scotland, surveyed annually from 2013 to 2020. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • Collated indices are a relative measure of butterfly abundance across sites monitored as part of the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. Data from all survey sites (standard UKBMS transects, Wider Countryside Survey transects and targeted species surveys such as timed, larval web and egg counts) are used in the calculation of these indices. The statistics are presented as log10 values. These values are centred round an arbitrary value of 2 as a mean for the time series in order to help show which years are below or above average. Collated indices are calculated annually for each individual butterfly species that has been recorded on five or more sites in that year. Indices are calculated at UK level and at individual country level for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland where sufficient data are available. Based on this criterion, collated indices have been calculated for the entire time series from 1976 (UK, England and Wales), 1979 (Scotland) and 2004 (Northern Ireland) to the current year for the majority of species, but for some rarer species this has not been possible in some years, particular those in the first part of the time series. Collated indices are calculated using a log-linear model incorporating individual site indices from all monitored sites across the UK or country for a given species in a given year. The number of sites for each species ranges from five to several hundred or more and fluctuates from year to year. By 2010 almost 2,000 sites were monitored in total across the UK, with this number rising to more than 3,000 over the next decade. Collated indices are calculated so that we can determine how butterfly populations are changing over time across the UK. This data can be used, for example, to determine where to target conservation efforts and more generally the condition of the UK countryside. Butterflies are recognised as important indicators of biodiversity and environmental change, for example in UK and country Biodiversity Indicators, and have been used in numerous studies of the impacts of climate and habitat change on biodiversity. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset contains carbon and nitrogen stock data from soils collected from Salisbury Plain, UK. The sites were selected to reflect the four main grassland management types on Salisbury Plain ranging from arable cropland to species rich grassland, with six representative grassland plots for each type (24 sites in total). Each site had two replicates for each variable measured. The data collected was intended to illustrate a gradient of ecosystem functioning and vegetation change as the grassland becomes more extensively managed. The field sampling was conducted by the University of Manchester and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology at Wallingford. Soil C and N were analysed by the University of Manchester. The data includes carbon and nitrogen budgets to depth at all sites. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • The dataset includes lists of local tree names, tree species identification and local uses of trees in seventeen different villages across three Districts in Mozambique, Africa. We collated species lists from seven villages in Mabalane District, Gaza Province, ten villages in Marrupa District, Niassa Province, and ten villages in Gurue District Zambezia Province. Data were collected in Mabalane between May-Sep 2014, Marrupa between May-Aug 2015, and Gurue between Sep-Dec 2015. Lists of local tree names were collated from several forest plots and agricultural field surveys occurring within the sampled villages, and their species identified in the field by the authors and/or from dried and pressed samples by botanists at the Universidade Eduardo Mondlane in Maputo. Tree species uses by local populations were recorded through a mixture of key informant interviews, focus group discussions, village surveys and ad-hoc observations. This dataset was collected as part of the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) funded ACES project , which aims to understand how changing land use impacts on ecosystem services and human wellbeing of the rural poor in Mozambique. Full details about this dataset can be found at