Temperature depth devices (TDR) were attached to northern rockhopper penguins breeding on Nightingale (37 deg 25''S, 12 deg 28''W) to investigate temporal differences in diving behaviour throughout the species'' breeding cycle. The data sets comprise the unprocessed pressure and temperature data for each bird in .csv format. Data were collected as part of the Darwin Plus funded Project Pinnamin, 2016 - 2018.
Geolocators (GLS) were attached to northern rockhopper penguins breeding on Nightingale Island (37 deg 25 S, 12 deg 28 W: 4 km2) with the aim to study the species'' dispersal in the inter-breeding period, 2017. This data successfully augmented and complement existing data sets for the species breeding on Nightingale Island and enhanced our understanding of the species'' distribution at sea throughout their annual cycle. There are four different data types for each penguin a) the unprocessed light sensor data, b) the unprocessed activity (wet/dry) data, c) the unprocessed temperature data and d) the estimated positions using the BAStag and SGAT packages in R. Data were collected as part of the Darwin Plus funded Project Pinnamin, 2016 - 2018.
Genetic variation on a spatial scale was assessed, using both DNA fingerprinting and sequencing-based approaches, in the Antarctic endemics Buellia frigida, Carbonia vorticosa and Amandinea petermananii, and in the bipolar species Caloplaca saxicola, Umbilicaria decussata and Cladonia galindezii. PCR-based (Polymerase Chain Reaction) molecular biology techniques, were used as they are ideal for working with lichens because little starting material is required. See Fabian et al. 2007 for further information on analyses and results.
The majority of Antarctic lichens produce sexual organs, and in many species sexual ascospores appear to be the only reproductive propagule. However, it is unknown whether sexual reproduction involves selfing (homothallism) or outcrossing (heterothallism). To investigate this issue we have established axenic cultures of sexual progeny in order to generate DNA fingerprints and thereby determine the breeding system.
The fieldwork involved collection of fertile lichens from a range of sites across the Antarctic Peninsula and isolation of the lichen-forming fungi into pure culture in a laboratory at Rothera. Approximately 5,600 monospore cultures were isolated, including B frigida. Approximately 400 thalli of Usnea species, and 3 O. frigida thalli have also been collected for whole thallus analysis. Logarithmic sampling transects of B frigida were conducted at Rothera (2 transects) and on Anchorage Island (one transect) to examine the genetic variation and geographic variation. All thalli of B frigida collected from the transects were successfully used to generate viable spores from four individual apothecia from each thallus. 16 spores were subcultured and maintained from each apothecium.
Adelie and Chinstrap penguins were fitted with a combined GPS and time-depth recorder (TDR) tags for between two and fourteen days in order to log their three-dimensional foraging trips. Tags were deployed between December and February of 2008 with a total of 19 Adelie penguin tracks and 35 Chinstrap penguin tracks.
The total number of seals on Signy Island is counted in February each year. The island is divided into 6 areas, sub-divided into 105 zones and the number of Antarctic Fur seals, Elephant seals, Weddell seals and other seal species in each zone is counted typically over a two day period. For Fur seals the number of pups, white seals and entangled seals are also recorded. The first recorded count was conducted in 1974 and counts have been done annually since 1985.
The number of Fur and Elephant seals around the base on Signy Island have been counted daily between January and March since 1992. Details of the area counted are given in the 1992 Seal Mammal report (AD6/2H/1992/NM3).
Samples of early Tertiary age fossil wood and leaves were collected from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, in 2001. Fossils from Palaeogene strata were studied to determine the nature of vegetation response to the fundamental change from greenhouse to icehouse climates in Antarctica. Palaeoclimate data was derived using CLAMP (Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program) and several Leaf Margin Analysis (LMA) techniques based on the physiognomic properties of the leaves. Climate interpretation of the fossils produced new data on terrestrial climate change at high latitudes and were used to test and validate climate models, and to establish whether climate-induced changes in biodiversity occurred in a gradual or punctuated manner.
During field work in 2001 over 1600 specimens were collected from four main fossil plant assemblages: the ''Nordenksjold flora'' from the Cross Valley Formation of Late Palaeocene age; and 3 floras from La Meseta Formation i) Flora2 from the Valle De Las Focas allomember, ~late Early Eocene, ii) Wiman Flora, Acantilados allomember, late Early/mid Eocene, iii) Cucullaea 1, Cuculleae 1 allomember Flora, early Late Eocene. In addition smaller collections of fossils from other parts of the La Meseta Formation were collected. The work concentrated on the Late Palaeocene and the Cuculleae 1 floras as these were the best preserved and had sufficient morphotypes for climate analysis. In the Late Palaeocene flora 36 angiosperm leaf morphotypes were identified, along with 2 pteridophytes (ferns), and podocarp and araucarian conifers. Discovery of several new leaf types indicates that the Tertiary floras from Antarctica were more diverse than previously thought.