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  • This poster was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 21.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-14. The data consists of a poster presented at the UKCCSRC biannual meeting in Cranfield, April 20th 2015. The poster describes an overview of work carried-out on behalf of the 'Fault seal controls on CO2 storage capacity in aquifers' project funded by the UKCCS Research Centre, grant number UKCCSRC-C1-14. Three main work strands are briefly described: 1) The Captain Sandstone aquifer is studied for the geomechanical integrity of faults, 2) Shallow gas accumulations in the Netherlands sector of the Southern North Sea provide an opportunity to study their coincidence with faulting while commonalities in the nature of the faults provide an indication of factors that might lead to fault leakage in CO2 storage sites. 3) The Fizzy gas field which is naturally rich in CO2 is studied for its fault seal potential as a natural analogue for fault-bounded storage sites.

  • Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies are critical for the UK to achieve its an ambitious target to reduce CO2 emissions by 80% by 2050. The development of an accurate, cost efficient and scalable metering technology that could be deployed in the commercial scale transportation of CO2 by pipeline for CCS purposes is critical for the deployment of CCS. However, current technologies employed in metering CO2 flows by pipeline are unable to provide the required levels of accuracy, particularly in situations where the CO2 stream contains different levels of impurities. Accordingly, in this project we will conduct laboratory trials to assess meters for accurate flow measurements, and ultimately develop technical specifications for accurate flow metering for CCS applications. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-201.

  • This poster on the UKCCSRC (UK Carbon Capture and Storage Research Centre) Call 1 project, Multi-Phase Flow Modelling for Hazardous Assessment, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 21.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-07.

  • This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Oxyfuel and EGR Processes in GT Combustion, was presented at the Sheffield Biannual, 08.04.13. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-26.

  • This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Nano-seismic mapping at Aquistore, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 21.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-19.

  • It is crucial that the engineered seals of boreholes in the vicinity of a deep storage facility remain effective for considerable timescales if the long-term geological containment of stored CO2 is to be effective. These timescales extend beyond those achievable by laboratory experiments or industrial experience. Study of the carbonation of natural Ca silicate hydrate (CSH) phases provides a useful insight into the alteration processes and evolution of cement phases over long-timescales more comparable with those considered in performance assessments. Samples from two such natural analogues in Northern Ireland have been compared with samples from laboratory experiments on the carbonation of Portland cement. Samples showed similar carbonation reaction processes even though the natural and experimental samples underwent carbonation under very different conditions and timescales. These included conversion of the CSH phases to CaCO3 and SiO2, and the formation of a well-defined reaction front. In laboratory experiments the reaction front is associated with localised Ca migration, localised matrix porosity increase, and localised shrinkage of the cement matrix with concomitant cracking. Behind the reaction front is a zone of CaCO3 precipitation that partly seals porosity. A broader and more porous/permeable reaction zone was created in the laboratory experiments compared to the natural samples, and it is possible that short-term experiments might not fully replicate slower, longer-term processes. That the natural samples had only undergone limited carbonation, even though they had been exposed to atmospheric CO2 or dissolved View the MathML sourceHCO3- in groundwater for several thousands of years, may indicate that the limited amounts of carbonate mineral formation may have protected the CSH phases from further reaction. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2012.09.007. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0883292712002594.

  • It is now generally accepted that anthropogenic CO2 emissions are contributing to the global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. One possibility for reducing carbon dioxide emissions is to remove it from the flue gases of coal-fired power stations and dispose of it in underground geological reservoirs, possibly offshore in the North Sea. The feasibility of this option has been studied in detail by a consortium of European partners. As part of this study, natural occurrences of carbon dioxide were identified and preliminary information from these was obtained. The best characterised are found in the United States where the carbon dioxide reserves are exploited for use in tertiary enhanced oil recovery (EOR) programs in the Texas oilfields. The carbon dioxide reserves occur in geological structures and lithologies which are similar to those present in the North Sea. As such, these fields offer an ideal natural analogue for the disposal of carbon dioxide, since the interactions with groundwaters and reservoir lithologies have occurred on both spatial and temporal scales relevant to geological processes. Those carbon dioxide fields currently being exploited have already been studied to a limited extent by the oil companies involved. However, further study is required to provide information on the potential effects that disposing of large quantities of carbon dioxide might have on groundwaters and reservoir quality. In addition, more detailed information will be obtained on the interactions which occur during EOR using carbon dioxide. This paper presents data on some of the natural carbon dioxide fields, and compares the effects of these natural fluid-rock interactions with those observed in laboratory experiments performed to establish what reactions occur during the geological disposal of carbon dioxide. doi:10.1016/0196-8904(95)00309-6. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0196890495003096.

  • The NERC-funded QICS controlled CO2 release experiment (located offshore Oban, Scotland) mimics the formation of a new CO2 seep in the marine environment. At the site, CO2 is injected at an onshore well head, and a stainless steel pipe transports the CO2 under the seabed. Approximately 350 m offshore, the CO2 is released through a perforated screen into the 12 metres of overlying marine sediment, which is at approximately 10 metres water depth. During spring/summer 2012, 4.2 tonnes of CO2 was released at the QICS experimental site. CO2 bubbles emerged from the seafloor ~30m to the west of the site and individual plumes covered a total area of ~ 350m2. Bubble stream location was recording using audio (acoustic) and visual techniques (photography, video). Both techniques are useful for recording the general location of plumes. However their 2D nature made it hard to characterise individual plumes and their exact locations. The QICS1 experiment included 200 deployments/recoveries of instruments, collection of 1,300 samples, and installation of 1600 m of cable and placement of 24 cages of indicator species on the seabed. In order to aid planning and operation during potential further experiments at the site it would be beneficial to utilise a robust and accurate method of recording the locations of equipment, samples and CO2 bubble streams. In this review, the four main types of submarine geolocation technologies are detailed and compared, and best available models (as of June 2013) are detailed. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-31.

  • The IEA (International Energy Agency) Weyburn Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Monitoring and Storage Project has analysed the effects of a miscible CO2 flood into a carbonate reservoir rock at an onshore Canadian oilfield. Anthropogenic CO2 is being injected as part of an enhanced oil recovery operation. The European research was aimed at analysing longterm migration pathways of CO2 and the effects of CO2 on the hydrochemical and mineralogical properties of the reservoir rock. This report is a synthesis of the principal findings of the European research effort and an assessment of how successfully the project objectives have been met. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/3682/.

  • This review details the laboratory experiments that have investigated leakage of geologically stored CO2 (as of June 2013). These experiments have covered a range of leakage factors. Knowledge of these factors can both compliment and help inform any future experiments at the QICS site. As such, the report details what experiments have been performed in the lab to date, how lab experiments can inform QICS and how QICS could inform laboratory experiments. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-31.