This research sought to explore the pattern of population movement (direction, rate, permanency) along a hypothesised route from Africa to Australasia during Oxygen Isotope Stage 4. Using GIS-based analyses and hypothetical models of population movement, potential routes out of East Africa were generated and examined. The goal of these analyses was to assess the viability of particular routes, and consider them in terms of ecological and geographical constraints. As a result, several routes through Africa, Arabia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australasia were proposed and evaluated. These routes have been further examined with regards to archaeological site location, the timing of human presence in South Asia, and biological indicators of human diversity.
QICS (Quantifying and monitoring environmental impacts of geological carbon storage) was a program funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), with support from the Scottish Government (May 2010 - December 2014) with two objectives. Firstly, to assess if any significant environmental impact would arise, if a leak from sub-sea, deep geological storage of carbon dioxide occurred. Secondly, to test and recommend tools and strategies for monitoring for (or assuring the absence of) leakage at the sea floor and in overlying waters. This data set provides a short overview of the novel experimental procedure - a world first leakage simulation in the natural environment and describes the experimental set up, sampling strategy including both temporal and spatial details. The data set consists of a pdf containing a text based project and experimental overview, a table outlining the temporal evolution of the experiment, including site selection, set up, baseline, impact and recovery phases and a diagram outlining the spatial sampling strategy. This data set contains an overview document collated by Plymouth Marine Laboratory. This provides the context for a number of specific related QICS datasets submitted to the UKCCS data archive, covering a range of geological, chemical and ecological information. QICS project website: www.bgs.ac.uk/qics/home.html. Blackford et al., 2014. Detection and impacts of leakage from sub-seafloor deep geological carbon dioxide storage. Nature Climate Change 4, 1011-1016. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2381. Taylor et al., 2015. A novel sub-seabed CO2 release experiment informing monitoring and impact assessment for geological carbon storage. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control. DOI:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.09.007.
The response of the benthic microbial community to a controlled sub-seabed CO2 leak was assessed using quantitative PCR measurements of benthic bacterial, archaeal and cyanobacteria/chloroplast 16S rRNA genes. Similarly, the impact of CO2 release on the abundance of benthic bacterial and archaeal ammonia amoA genes and transcripts, and also to the abundance of nitrite oxidizer (nirS) and anammox hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) genes and transcripts. Samples were taken from four zones (epicentre (zone 1); 25m distant (zone 2), 75m distant (zone 3) and 450m distant (zone 4)) during 6 time points (7 days before CO2 exposure, after 14 and 36 days of CO2 release, and 6, 20 and 90 days after the CO2 release had ended). Changes to the active community of microphytobenthos and bacteria were also assessed before, during and after CO2 release using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis of cyanobacteria/chloroplast 16S rRNA. Changes to the composition of the active bacterial community was assessed first using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) of bacterial 16S rRNA. In depth comparisons of possible changes to the active bacterial community at zone 1 and 4 before, during and immediately after the CO2 release was performed using 16S rRNA 454 pyrosequencing. This dataset was created by Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) under the program QICS (Quantifying and monitoring environmental impacts of geological carbon storage) which was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), with support from the Scottish Government. The results are contained in three text files. QICS project website: www.bgs.ac.uk/qics/home.html. Tait et al. (2015) Rapid response of the active microbial community to CO2 exposure from a controlled sub-seabed CO2 leak in Ardmucknish Bay (Oban, Scotland). IJGGC DOI: 10.1016/ijggc.2014.11.021. Watanabe et al. (2015) Ammonia oxidation activity of microorganisms in surface sediment to a controlled sub-seabed release of CO2. IJGGC DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.11.013.
Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with type of mass movement e.g. landslip. The scale of the data is 1:10 000 scale. Onshore coverage is partial with approximately 30% of England, Scotland and Wales available in the version 2 data release. BGS intend to continue developing coverage at this scale; current focus is to include all large priority urban areas, along with road and rail transport corridors. Mass movement describes areas where deposits have moved down slope under gravity to form landslips. These landslips can affect bedrock, superficial or artificial ground. Mass movement deposits are described in the BGS Rock Classification Scheme Volume 4. However the data also includes foundered strata, where ground has collapsed due to subsidence (this is not described in the Rock Classification Scheme). Caution should be exercised with this data; historically BGS has not always recorded mass movement events and due to the dynamic nature of occurrence significant changes may have occurred since the data was released. The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.
The British Geological Survey (BGS) was awarded a grant from the Welsh Assembly Government Aggregates Levy Fund in 2009 to provide a comprehensive, relevant and accessible information base to enhance the sustainability of mineral resources for Wales. BGS co-funded this project through its Sustainable Mineral Solutions project. This work was completed in 2010. This dataset comprises the digital GIS files which were produced through this project. The major elements of minerals information presented on the maps are; the geological distribution of all onshore mineral resources in Wales, the location of mineral extraction sites, the recorded occurrences of metallic minerals, the recorded location of former slate quarries and significant areas of slate waste and the recorded location of historic building stone quarries. The BGS Mineral Resource data does not determine mineral reserves and therefore does not denote potential areas of extraction. Only onshore, mainland mineral resources are included in the dataset. This dataset has been produced by the collation and interpretation of mineral resource data principally held by the British Geological Survey. The mineral resource data presented are based on the best available information, but are not comprehensive and their quality is variable. The dataset should only be used to show a broad distribution of those mineral resources which may be of current or potential economic interest. The data should not be used to determine individual planning applications or in taking decisions on the acquisition or use of a particular piece of land, although they may give useful background information which sets a specific proposal in context.
A dataset of historical sediment Carbon and Nitrogen isotope measurements from lake cores (n=95) spanning the range of lake types and catchments found across the UK. These data have been obtained from the Environmental Change Research Centre (ECRC) lake sediment core archive with well-resolved time intervals (1850, 1900, 1980 and present) determined by radiometric dating (210Pb; 137Cs). This data has been collated to investigate historical sources and accumulation of C and N in lakes. This dataset provides historical data for hydrological / nutrient modelling from the Long Term Large Scale (LTLS) Project in the NERC Macronutrients programme. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/4b53b1d7-f290-4b47-97e9-9f9ec79f3003
This dataset contains modelled outputs of the European river network modelled as 33,668 cells (5° longitude by 5° latitude). For each cell, modelled monthly flows were generated for an ensemble of tenscenarios for the 2050s and for the study baseline (naturalized flows for 1961 to 1990). Score classes are categorisation of flow alteration scenarios. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/d8ef71eb-3d22-4f98-af15-9d8e046ccb63
This is a web map service (WMS) of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) data in South West England at a 1m resolution. The DTM covers an area of 9424 km2 that includes all the land west of Exmouth (i.e. west of circa 3 degrees 21 minutes West). The DTM represents the topographic model (height) of the bare earth. The dataset is a part of outcomes from the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology South West (SW) Project.
This web map service presents modelled estimates of soil pH, carbon concentration (g kg-1), nitrogen concentration (% dry weight soil) and invertebrate density (individuals m-2) at 1km2 resolution across Great Britain. A Generalized Additive Model approach was used with Countryside Survey soil data from 2007 and including climate, atmospheric deposition, habitat, soil and spatial predictors. The models are based on data from Countryside Survey sample locations across Great Britain and are representative of 0-8cm soil depth for invertebrates and 0-15 cm soil depth for other variables. The Countryside Survey looks at a range of physical, chemical and biological properties of the topsoil from a representative sample of habitats across the UK. Loss-on-ignition (LOI) was determined by combustion of 10g dry soil at 375 degrees Celsius for 16 hours; carbon concentration was estimated by multiplying LOI by a factor of 0.55. Soil N concentration was determined using a total elemental analyser. Soil pH was measured using 10g of field moist soil with 25ml de-ionised water giving a ratio of soil to water of 1:2.5 by weight. Soil invertebrates were extracted from cores using a dry Tullgren extraction method and enumerated by microscope
Data comprise species level descriptions of macroinvertebrate communities and habitat descriptions from wadeable rivers of the Thames catchment, in the United Kingdom (UK), sampled over three seasons in the years 2009 - 2010. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/5700501d-feb4-445d-aa08-81a158e54bac