This research sought to explore the pattern of population movement (direction, rate, permanency) along a hypothesised route from Africa to Australasia during Oxygen Isotope Stage 4. Using GIS-based analyses and hypothetical models of population movement, potential routes out of East Africa were generated and examined. The goal of these analyses was to assess the viability of particular routes, and consider them in terms of ecological and geographical constraints. As a result, several routes through Africa, Arabia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australasia were proposed and evaluated. These routes have been further examined with regards to archaeological site location, the timing of human presence in South Asia, and biological indicators of human diversity.
The RISCS (Research into Impacts and Safety in CO2 Storage) project assessed the potential environmental impacts of leakage from geological CO2 storage. Consideration was given to possible impacts on groundwater resources and on near surface ecosystems both onshore and offshore. The aim of the project was to assist storage site operators and regulators in assessing the potential impacts of leakage so that these could be considered during all phases of a storage project (project design, site characterisation, site operation, post-operation and site abandonment, and following transfer of liability back to the state). A secondary objective was to inform policy makers, politicians and the general public of the feasibility and long-term benefits and consequences of large-scale CO2 capture and storage (CCS) deployment. RISCS was a 4 year project supported by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme. Project website http://www.riscs-co2.eu.
QICS (Quantifying and monitoring environmental impacts of geological carbon storage) was a program funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), with support from the Scottish Government (May 2010 - December 2014) with two objectives. Firstly, to assess if any significant environmental impact would arise, if a leak from sub-sea, deep geological storage of carbon dioxide occurred. Secondly, to test and recommend tools and strategies for monitoring for (or assuring the absence of) leakage at the sea floor and in overlying waters. This data set provides a short overview of the novel experimental procedure - a world first leakage simulation in the natural environment and describes the experimental set up, sampling strategy including both temporal and spatial details. The data set consists of a pdf containing a text based project and experimental overview, a table outlining the temporal evolution of the experiment, including site selection, set up, baseline, impact and recovery phases and a diagram outlining the spatial sampling strategy. This data set contains an overview document collated by Plymouth Marine Laboratory. This provides the context for a number of specific related QICS datasets submitted to the UKCCS data archive, covering a range of geological, chemical and ecological information. QICS project website: www.bgs.ac.uk/qics/home.html. Blackford et al., 2014. Detection and impacts of leakage from sub-seafloor deep geological carbon dioxide storage. Nature Climate Change 4, 1011-1016. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2381. Taylor et al., 2015. A novel sub-seabed CO2 release experiment informing monitoring and impact assessment for geological carbon storage. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control. DOI:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.09.007.
The map shows the potential for the rocks to supply groundwater and the type of groundwater flow within the rocks. The dataset reattributes polygons in the Digital Geological Map Data of Great Britain - 625k (DiGMapGB-625) Bedrock version 5 dataset to indicate whether the bedrock is an aquifer, the type of flow through the aquifer (fracture and fissure flow or intergranular flow) and how productive the aquifer is likely to be. The dataset is based on the known hydrogeological properties of rock types. The dataset covers just the bedrock formations for the UK and the Isle of Man. The data can be used for planning, environmental analysis, water supply and hazards.
Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with type of mass movement e.g. landslip. The scale of the data is 1:10 000 scale. Onshore coverage is partial with approximately 30% of England, Scotland and Wales available in the version 2 data release. BGS intend to continue developing coverage at this scale; current focus is to include all large priority urban areas, along with road and rail transport corridors. Mass movement describes areas where deposits have moved down slope under gravity to form landslips. These landslips can affect bedrock, superficial or artificial ground. Mass movement deposits are described in the BGS Rock Classification Scheme Volume 4. However the data also includes foundered strata, where ground has collapsed due to subsidence (this is not described in the Rock Classification Scheme). Caution should be exercised with this data; historically BGS has not always recorded mass movement events and due to the dynamic nature of occurrence significant changes may have occurred since the data was released. The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.
Data includes impacts on root nodule biomass, stomatal conductance, injury rates, and N-fixation in the white clover cultivar (T. repens cv. crusader). An ozone-exposure experiment was conducted in solardomes during the spring and summer of year 2012 on modern clover (Trifolium spp.) cultivars. The effects of ozone pollution (30, 35, 40, 45, 52, 67 parts per billion (ppb) treatment means) on the growth and functioning of the clover cultivars was investigated. Both cultivars had positive increases in ozone-injury rates, although stomatal conductance was unaffected by ozone exposure. Reductions in root nodule biomass and nodule number occurred in white clover, and red clover displayed an increase in nodule density. Nitrogen fixation rates were suppressed in white clover, which could have important implications for the sustainability of managed pasture. The work was carried out as part of a NERC funded PhD. Project number NEC04456. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/b63fbb6c-5030-43a1-b0ea-160bb5a83078
Dataset contains concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic carbon, inorganic carbon, CO2, CH4 and N2O in the Black Burn stream which drains Auchencorth Moss peatland in South East Scotland. Auchencorth Moss is part of the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology's UK Carbon Catchment project. Concentrations have been measured approximately weekly from January 2007 to December 2011 Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/3f0820a7-a8c8-4dd7-a058-8db79ba9c7fe
This dataset contains yield data for wheat, oilseed rape and field beans grown in fields under different agri-environment practices. The fields were located at the Hillesden Estate in Buckinghamshire, UK, where a randomised block experiment had been implemented to examine the effects of converting differing proportions of arable land to wildlife habitat. The fields were planted with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) followed by break crops of either oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) or field beans (Vicia faba L.). Three treatments were applied at random: a control ("business as usual"), Entry Level Stewardship (ELS) treatment and ELS Extra treatment. The ELS treatment involved removing 1% of land to create wildlife habitats. The ELS Extra had a greater proportion of land removed (6%) and additional wildlife habitats included. The total yield of each crop was measured at the time of harvesting using a yield meter attached to the combine harvester. From these values, yield per hectare and the ratio of crop yield to regional average yield were calculated. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/e54069b6-71a9-4b36-837f-a5e3ee65b4de
The dataset consists of ACi (net CO2 assimilation rate, A, versus calculated substomatal CO2 concentration, Ci) curve data from an ozone experiment during which Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne were exposed as both monocultures and two-species mixtures to an episodic rural ozone regime in large, well-watered containers within solardomes for 12 weeks. Treatments were elevated ozone (AOT40 (Accumulated Ozone Threshold exposure of 40 parts per billion) of 12.86 ppm h) or control conditions (AOT40 of 0.02 ppm h). ACi curves were carried out mid-way and at the end of the exposure period using a Portable Photosynthesis System, CIRAS (PP-Systems) to calculate the photosynthetic parameters Jmax (maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport) and Vcmax (maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylase activity). The observed decreases in photosynthetic efficiency and capacity in elevated ozone indicate that the ability of such ubiquitous vegetation to act as a sink for atmospheric carbon may be reduced in future climates. The experiment was carried out at the CEH Bangor Air Pollution Facility. This work was funded by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology Integrating Fund Initiative. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/f14b9056-ccc0-4887-812e-c004f613a138
73 ecosystem services variables for 11 Environmental Change Network (ECN) sites throughout the UK mainland. The variables cover provisioning (food, fibre, fuel, genetic resources, biochemical and pharmaceuticals, ornamental), regulating (air quality regulation, climate regulation, water regulation, erosion, human diseases, biological control, pollination, natural hazard, other hazards) and cultural (cultural diversity) service types. The list of variables was agreed at an ECN site manager's workshop as representative of the high level categories defined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. The variables were calculated from data from three sources (i) data collected for the ECN to standard ECN protocols, (ii) data obtained by site managers from a variety of other sources for their site and (iii) expert knowledge of site managers. The data were from a single year (usually 2009) or were averages of annual measurements. Established in 1992, the ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring and research programme and makes regular measurements of air, soil, water and a range of animals and plants across a network of sites to determine how and why the natural environment is changing. The ECN is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of UK government departments and agencies. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/2c5f823d-0dca-4e66-b021-de3e81131979