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  • During 2010-11, as part of the Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) Demonstration Competition process, E.ON undertook a Front End Engineering Design (FEED) study for the development of a commercial scale CCS demonstration plant at Kingsnorth in Kent, South East England. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material is available for download here. This chapter presents the FEED stage Capture and Compression plant technical design. The 'Design Basis for CO2 Recovery Plant' lists the design parameters relating to the capture plant site, the flue gas to be treated, the utilities available, the required life and availability of the plant, and other constraints to be complied with in the capture plant, dehydration and compression design. The details of the processes of capture, compression, and dehydration are best visualised on the Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs) which show the process flows described above together with additional detail of coolers, pumps, and other plant items. Separate PFDs are provided for the capture plant, the compression plant, and the dehydration plant to show the complete flue gas and CO2 flows. Some of the key aspects of the technical design of the Capture and Compression plant are; There are two separate water circuits shown in the quencher with separate extractions of excess water. These have been separated because the recovered quench water is of good enough quality for re-use on the power station, whilst the deep FGD waste water is sent to the water treatment plant; Molecular sieves have been selected as the most appropriate equipment for dehydration of the CO2 prior to pipeline transportation; With the particular layout constraints of the Kingsnorth site, a split layout of the absorption and regeneration equipment is preferred over the compact layout. Further supporting documents for chapter 5 of the Key Knowledge Reference Book can be downloaded. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link -

  • A controlled sub-seabed CO2 release experiment (QICS: quantifying and monitoring potential impacts of geological carbon storage) was conducted in Ardmucknish Bay, Scotland, in 2012, to quantify the effect of leaked CO2 on marine environments. In this experiment, CO2 was injected beneath the seafloor, and closely monitored as the CO2 was allowed to leak into the overlying water column. We performed mapping observations using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) equipped with sensors to monitor physical and chemical conditions in the vicinity of the CO2 leakage. We also numerically simulated the behavior of the low-pH plume caused by the CO2 leakage, within the calculated tidal current in the bay. The results of AUV mapping observations showed that physical and chemical characteristics of the water mass in Ardmucknish bay are sensitive to tidal variations (low or high tide), and the ascent speed of the leaked CO2 bubble and the pH decrease in the vicinity of the CO2 leakage area are predominantly controlled by the tidal phase in the bay. The observations using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) installed in the AUV indicated that the current in the bay flows westwards at high tide and eastwards at low tide. The simulated tidal current agreed well with the tidal current observed by ADCP. Numerical simulation suggested that the pH decrease due to the leaked CO2 is restricted to the vicinity of the CO2 leakage area, and fluctuates greatly with tidal variations. In flood tide periods, diffusion of the low-pH plume caused by the leaked CO2 is barely detectable because low-pH seawater intrudes into the bay from the bay mouth. This is a publication in QICS Special Issue - International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Yoshiaki Maeda et. al. Doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2015.01.017.

  • This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project Towards more flexible power generation with CCS was presented at the UKCCSRC Manchester Biannual Meeting, 13.04.2016. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-214.

  • This presentation on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, UK Bio-CCS CAP, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 22.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-38. Video available at

  • This Microsoft Excel document contains 5 worksheets providing data produced by research as part of UKCCSRC Call 1 funded project (grant number UKCCSRC-C1-31) and UKCCSRC funded international exchange. These data are presented and discussed in the manuscript "Geochemical tracers for monitoring offshore CO2 stores" by J. Roberts, S. Gilfillan, L. Stalker, M. Naylor, Then data details the assumptions around background concentrations of chemical tracers in the atmosphere and seawater, cost per litre, and how tracer detection concentrations (and so cost and potential environmental impact were calculated).

  • This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 1 project, Mixed Matrix Membrane Preparation for PCC, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 21.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C1-36.

  • This poster on the UKCCSRC Call 2 project, Multiscale characterization of CO2 storage in the United Kingdom, was presented at the Cranfield Biannual, 21.04.15. Grant number: UKCCSRC-C2-197.

  • The adoption of carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a method of mitigating anthropogenic CO2 emissions will depend on the ability of initial geological storage projects to demonstrate secure containment of injected CO2. Potential leakage pathways, such as faults or degraded wells, increase the uncertainty of geological storage security. CCS as an industry is still in its infancy and until we have experience of industrial scale, long term CO2 storage projects, quantifying leakage event probabilities will be problematic. Laboratory measurements of residual saturation trapping, the immobilisation of isolated micro-bubbles of CO2 in reservoir pores, provides an evidence base to determine the fraction of injected CO2 that will remain trapped in the reservoir, even if a leakage event were to occur. Experimental results for sandstone, the most common target lithology for storage projects, demonstrate that 13–92% of injected CO2 can be residually trapped. Mineralisation, the only other geological trapping mechanism which guarantees permanent trapping of CO2, immobilises CO2 over hundreds to thousands of years. In comparison, residual trapping occurs over years to decades, a timescale which is more relevant to CCS projects during their operational phase and to any financial security mechanisms they require to secure storage permits. This is a publication in International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Neil M. Burnside et. al. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.01.013.

  • Data derived from UKCCSRC Call 2 Project C2-181. The journal article can be found at Sorption enhanced chemical looping steam reforming of methane (SE-CLSR) relies on the exothermicity of both a metal catalyst’s oxidation and the in situ CO2 capture by carbonation onto a solid sorbent to provide the heat demand of hydrogen (H2) production by steam reforming while generating a nearly pure H2 product. A brief thermodynamic analysis to study the main features of the SE-CLSR process is done prior to the reactor modelling work. Later, one dimensional mathematical model of SE-CLSR process in the packed bed configuration is developed using gPROMS model builder 4.1.0 under the adiabatic conditions. This model combines reduction of the NiO catalyst with the steam reforming reactions, followed by the oxidation of the Ni-based reduced catalyst. The individual models of NiO reduction, steam reforming with in situ CO2 capture on Ca-sorbent, and Ni re-oxidation are developed by using kinetic data available in literature and validated against previous published work. The model of SE-CLSR is then applied to simulate 10 alternative cycles of the fuel and air feed in the reactor. The performance of the model is studied in terms of CH4 conversion, CO2 capture efficiency, purity and yield of H2. The sensitivity of the process is studied under the various operating conditions of temperature, pressure, molar steam to carbon ratio (S/C) and mass flux of the gas phase. In this work, the operating conditions used for the production of H2 represent realistic industrial production conditions. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the developed model of SE-CLSR process has the flexibility to simulate a wide range of operating conditions of temperature, pressure, S/C and mass flux of the gas phase.

  • The map shows the localities where samples that form part of the BGS rock collections have been taken. Many of these samples are from surface exposure, and were collected by BGS geologists during the course of geological mapping programmes. Others are from onshore boreholes or from mine and quarry workings. The principal collections are the E (England and Wales), S (Scotland), N (continuation of the S collection) and the MR (miscellaneous). The collections, which are held at the BGS offices at Keyworth (Nottingham) and Edinburgh, comprise both hand specimens and thin sections, although in individual samples either may not be immediately available. Users may also note that the BGS holds major collections of borehole cores and hand specimens as well as over a million palaeontological samples. The Britrocks database provides an index to these collections. With over 120,000 records, it now holds data for some 70% of the entire collections, including the UK samples shown in this application as well as rocks from overseas locations and reference minerals. The collections are continuously being added to and sample records from archived registers are also being copied into the electronic database. Map coverage is thin in some areas where copying from original paper registers has not been completed. Further information on Britrocks samples in these and other areas can be obtained from the Chief Curator at the BGS Keyworth (Nottingham) office or from the rock curator at the BGS Murchison House (Edinburgh) office.