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  • The dataset consists of the transcripts of expert inputs considering how the conceptual thinking for both ‘smart’ and ‘natural or biophilic’ cities could combine to inform future urban discourses and critically reviewed a set of emerging characteristics that described the interface between these alternative discourses. These inputs include informed practice-based perspectives on themes identified in the literature and comparative assessments, testing the integrating principles identified in the research against business as usual silo approaches, which helped refine the research outcomes. Expert inputs were used to inform the identification of new ways of integrating urban futures discourses, in particular shaping the Smart City – Natural City interface, using Birmingham, UK as a case study. The files include the underlying data provided by a cohort of multi-disciplinary [anonymised] experts who contributed to the research; • the record of the group or table outputs from the Innovation Workshop of 12th September 2017 • copies of photographs of the collective ‘stickies’ contributions at the workshop • the original transcript record of the semi-structured interview conversations • records of Group telephone or meeting conversations • ‘work in progress’ collations of comments received; generated to share with contributors and with co-authors Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • The products capture current land use/cover for four areas of interest in Corridor Ankeniheny Zahamena (CAZ) generated based on very high resolution imagery (SPOT 6). Field-based training and validation data were used and supervised classifications created using Random Forest classifier. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset contains records for vegetation in 49 plots across 14 fragmented forest sites and 4 continuous forest sites in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Living vegetation and deadwood were surveyed in two or three 0.28-ha plots in each of the 18 sites. In addition to vegetation data, the dataset contains topsoil parameters, measurements of forest structure, and metrics of the degree of forest fragmentation in the landscape surrounding the plots. These data were collected in order to conduct studies examining (1) the factors supporting invasion of exotic plant species into fragmented forest areas; and (2) the value of conservation set-asides for carbon storage and associated plant diversity in oil palm plantations. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • [This dataset is embargoed until December 1, 2020]. Projections of global changes in water scarcity with the current extent of maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production commodities were combined to identify the potential country level vulnerabilities of cropland land to water scarcity in 2050. The data relate to an analysis of the impact changes in water availability will have on maize, rice, wheat, vegetables, pulses and fruit production commodities availability in 2050. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • The R code "carbon_stock_calculations.R" estimates aboveground carbon stocks for 49 plots in 14 fragmented forest sites and 4 continuous forest sites in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, using the vegetation dataset ‘Vegetation and habitat data for fragmented and continuous forest sites in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, 2017’. The 14 fragmented sites were all in Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil-certified oil palm plantations, and are hereafter termed 'conservation set-asides'. The code also estimates the aboveground carbon stocks of oil palm plantations for comparison. The R code "analyses_and_figures.R" runs analyses and makes figures of aboveground carbon stocks and associated plant diversity for these sites, as presented in Fleiss et al. (2020) This R code was created in order to investigate the following: (1) to establish the value of conservation set-asides for increasing oil palm plantation aboveground carbon stocks; (2) to establish whether set-asides with high aboveground carbon stocks can have co-benefits for plant diversity; (3) to compare the carbon stocks and vegetation structure of conservation set-asides with that of continuous forest, including assessing tree regeneration potential by examining variation in seedling density; (4) to examine potential drivers of variation in aboveground carbon stocks of conservation set-asides (topography, degree of fragmentation, and soil parameters); (5) to scale-up the estimates of the aboveground carbon stocks of conservation set-asides, in order to predict average carbon stocks of oil palm plantations with and without set-asides, and for varying coverage of set-asides across the plantation. Full details about this application can be found at

  • This code uses pathway modelling to look at correlations of exotic plant invasion in tropical rainforest remnants and continuous sites. Partial least squares path-modelling looks at correlations between latent variables that are informed by measured variables. The code examines the relative influence of landscape-level fragmentation, local forest disturbance, propagule pressure, soil characteristics and native community composition on invasion. The total native community is examined first. Then subsets of the native community are modelled separately, adult trees, tree saplings, tree seedlings and ground vegetation. The relationship between the native and exotic communities was tested in both directions. Full details about this application can be found at

  • This dataset collection comprises solid and liquid coastal freshwater fluxes from land ice in Greenland, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Svalbard and Iceland. Tundra runoff from all these land areas is also included. The fluxes have been routed to coastal grid cells around the margins of the land areas. The fluxes are provided in three fields: tundra, surface runoff over ice, solid ice discharge (icebergs, for Greenland only). The data are on a 5 km polar stereographic projection with a monthly time step and are in a netcdf format. Detailed description of the derivation of the data can be found in an associated paper in JGR-Oceans: Bamber J.L, et al "Land ice freshwater budget of the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. Part I: Data, methods and results". This dataset contains monthly resolution runoff and annual resolution discharge (at monthly time steps) from 01/01/1958 to 31/12/2016.