Environmental Monitoring Facilities

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  • This service provides a view of Environmental Change Network (ECN) site locations from which data are collected. There are 12 terrestrial sites and 45 freshwater sites. Sites range from upland to lowland, moor land to chalk grassland, small ponds and streams to large rivers and lakes. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. A wide range of integrated physical, chemical and biological variables which drive and respond to environmental change are collated, quality controlled and made freely available for scientific research. The data form an important evidence base for UK environmental policy development. ECN is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage.

  • This dataset contains two gridded potential evapotranspiration variables for Great Britain from 1961-2019: daily total potential evapotranspiration (PET; kg m-2 d-1) and daily total potential evapotranspiration with interception correction (PETI; kg m-2 d-1). The variables were calculated from the Climate Hydrology and Ecology research Support System meteorology dataset for Great Britain (1961-2019) [CHESS-met] gridded observed meteorological data at 1 km resolution. The units kg m-2 d-1 are equivalent to mm d-1. The data are provided in gridded NetCDF files. There is one file for each variable, for each calendar month. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • The dataset contains annual soil greenhouse gas emissions following sheep urine (real and artificial) applications to a semi-improved upland grassland in North Wales, UK, across two seasons (spring and autumn) within the year 2016-2017. Soil greenhouse gas data were collected using a combination of automated chambers and manually sampled chambers, both analysed via gas chromatography. Supporting data include meteorological data, soil chemistry and above ground biomass data collected on a time-series throughout the study, following urine application. The data were used to calculate sheep urine patch nitrous oxide emission factors from an upland environment, to improve estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from extensively grazed agroecosystems. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • The data comprise summary statistics for performance of a genotyping microarray for a test set of 87 samples for four pine species. The summary statistics comprise state (polymorphic, monomorphic), mean allele frequency and conversion rate, estimated for each locus as a mean across 87 sample genotypes. The array comprised 49,829 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) from several sources. The majority (N = 49,052) were obtained from transcriptome sequencing of four pine species: Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus uncinata and Pinus uliginosa. The SNP set was filtered by the array manufacturer (Thermo Fisher) based on p-convert values signifying the SNP array quality, and a list of recommended and non-recommended SNP probes (avoiding SNPs with polymorphisms within 35 bp) was provided to the authors. These included SNPs that were common to all species and also SNPs fixed in one species and polymorphic within and among others. A further set of SNPs (N = 578) were included from candidate genes (N = 279), which had been resequenced in previous population genetic studies of the pine species. Variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was targeted by inclusion of a set of mtDNA- specific SNPs (N = 14). Finally, a set of SNPs putatively associated with susceptibility to Dothistroma needle blight (discovered in Pinus radiata, European Nucleotide Archive accession numbers ERS1034542-53) were also included (N = 185). Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • Dataset comprises of the delta-13C and delta-15N stable isotopic information from feather samples (for 552 individuals) and the sex (assigned by DNA-analysis of blood samples for 321 individuals) of oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) breeding in Iceland during the summers of 2013-2017. The Icelandic oystercatcher population contains individuals that stay in Iceland year-round and individuals that migrate to mainland Europe in the non-breeding season, and feather isotope ratios provide a means of distinguishing between these migratory behaviours (as confirmed by observations of marked individuals). These data were collected by a collaborative team from the University of Iceland, University of East Anglia (UK) and the University of Aveiro (Portugal). Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, grass samples were collected from 42 sites around Great Britain during April 2011. Iodine-131 was measurable in grass samples across the country with activity concentrations ranging from 10 to 55 Bq per kg dry matter. Concentrations were similar to those reported in other European countries. Rainwater and some foodstuffs were also analysed from a limited number of sites. Of these, I-131 was only detectable in sheep's milk (c. 2 Bq/kg). Caesium-134, which can be attributed to releases from the Fukushima reactors, was detectable in six of the grass samples (4-8 Bq/kg dry matter); 137Cs was detected in a larger number of grass samples although previous release sources (atmospheric weapons test and the 1986 Chernobyl and 1957 Windscale accidents) are likely to have contributed to this. All data and information for this sampling are available from this record. The data result from collaboration between CEH and the University of Stirling. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • The dataset includes data on vegetation composition, flower counts, berry availability over winter, pollinator visitation rates, invertebrate, hedge structure and hedgerow regrowth from a set of long running hedgerow experiments. There were three experiments in total. Experiment 1 was based in Monks Wood, Cambridgeshire, and was used to investigate the long-term effects of timing and frequency of cutting on resource provision for wildlife. Experiment 2 was based at 5 sites across Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire and Devon and was used to investigate the effect of timing, intensity and frequency of hedgerow cutting. Experiment 3 was based at 5 sites across Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire and was used to investigate the effects of different rejuvenation techniques on hedgerows. All three experiments were randomised plot experiments (full details of plots and their treatments can be found in the supporting documentation. The majority of the data was collected between 2010 and 2016 but for one experiment there is data from 2005. The long running hedgerow experiments had two linked aims focused on management to maintain and restore the hedgerow resource under the agri-environment schemes: • to examine the effects of simple cutting management regimes promoted by Entry Level Stewardship (ELS) and Higher Level Stewardship (HLS) on the quality and quantity of wildlife habitat, and food resources in hedgerows; and • to identify, develop and test low-cost, practical options for hedgerow restoration and rejuvenation applicable at the large-scale under both ELS and HLS. This research was funded by Defra (project number BD2114: Effects of hedgerow management and restoration on biodiversity) and managed by the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH). Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset contains daily and sub-daily hydrometeorological and soil moisture observations from COSMOS-UK (cosmic-ray soil moisture) monitoring network from October 2013 to the end of 2023. These data are from 51 sites across the UK recording a range of hydrometeorological and soil variables. Each site in the network records the following hydrometeorological and soil data at 30-minute resolution: Radiation (short wave, long wave, and net), precipitation, atmospheric pressure, air temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity, soil heat flux, and soil temperature and volumetric water content (VWC), measured by point sensors at various depths. Each site hosts a cosmic-ray sensing probe; a novel sensor technology which counts fast neutrons in the surrounding atmosphere. In combination with the recorded hydrometeorological data, neutron counts are used to derive VWC over a field scale (COSMOS VWC), provide at daily resolution. The presence of snow leads to erroneously high measurements of COSMOS VWC due to all the extra water in the surrounding area. Included in the daily data are indications of snow days, on which, the COSMOS VWC are adjusted, and the snow water equivalent (SWE) is given. The potential evapotranspiration (PE), derived from recorded hydrometeorological and soil are also included at daily resolution. Two levels of quality control are carried out, firstly data is run through a series of automated checks, such as range tests and spike tests, and then all data is manually inspected each week where any other faults are picked up, including sensor faults or connection issues. Quality control flags are provided for all recorded (30 minute) data, indicating the reason for any missing data. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset contains the codes for water laboratory analysis, sampling dates and locations for soil samples collected from the Tamar catchment in winter 2013/2014 as part of the South West project. It contains soil chemistry data for metals and mineral contents of samples soils. It should be used in conjunction with datasets describing soil bacteria and soil eukaryote operational taxonomic unit sequence data. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset consists of butterfly and bumblebee counts, winter bird counts, number of flowering units, and seed mass data, along with categories of soil type and quality, and temperature data. Data were collected from arable farms under the English Entry Level agri-environment Scheme (ELS) for two options: Nectar Flower Mixture option (NFM) and Wild Bird Seed Mixture (WBM). Surveys were carried out in 2007 and repeated in 2008. All data were collected using standardised protocols: butterfly and bumblebee counts were collected from transects in the NFM options during summer; flowering units were counted within quadrats along the same transects in summer; bird counts were made in winter within the whole WBM areas; seed resource was calculated for the WBM areas from seeds collected in quadrats along transects. The dataset also contains results from farmer interviews. The interviews were designed to explore farmer attitudes towards, and history of, environmental management and their perceptions and understanding of the management requirements. Three measures of farmer attitude were then calculcated from their responses: experience (4-point scale), concerns (5-point scale) and motivation (3-point scale). All data were collected as part of the FarmCAT project, the principal aim of which was to develop a holistic understanding of the social and ecological factors which lead to the successful delivery of agri-environmental schemes. This project was funded as part of the ESRC Rural Economy and Land Use (RELU) programme. Full details about this dataset can be found at