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Climatology, meteorology, atmosphere

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  • Hourly precipitation (mm) recorded at distributed points around Kampala between April 2019 and March 2020. Only timestamps where data were available from all sensors have been included. There are 8094 records in total and no missing values. Timestamps are recorded as “YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss”. The geographic coordinates of the sensors are provided in GeoJSON format. The column names in the CSV file correspond to the “id” field in the GeoJSON file. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/3df031ad-34ec-4abc-8528-f8f20bad12b8

  • Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) data for Integrated Hydrological Units (IHU) Hydrometric Areas (Kral et al. [1]). SPI is a drought index based on the probability of precipitation for a given accumulation period as defined by McKee et al. [2]. SPI is calculated for different accumulation periods: 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 months. Each of these is in turn calculated for each of the twelve calendar months. Note that values in monthly (and for longer accumulation periods also annual) time series of the data therefore are likely to be autocorrelated. The standard period which was used to fit the gamma distribution is 1961-2010. The dataset covers the period from 1961 to 2012. [1] Kral, F., Fry, M., Dixon, H. (2015). Integrated Hydrological Units of the United Kingdom: Hydrometric Areas without Coastline. NERC-Environmental Information Data Centre doi:10.5285/3a4e94fc-4c68-47eb-a217-adee2a6b02b3 [2] McKee, T. B., Doesken, N. J., Kleist, J. (1993). The Relationship of Drought Frequency and Duration to Time Scales. Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology, 17-22 January 1993, Anaheim, California. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/5e1792a0-ae95-4e77-bccd-2fb456112cc1

  • [This dataset is embargoed until September 1, 2025]. The dataset includes 30-minute observations of land-atmosphere exchange of net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange and sensible and latent heat measured over two years in a cropland in Yorkshire, UK. Fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance method. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/11f9dd8a-6dac-40e0-b756-05e1f32171f8

  • Averaged outputs from the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model for the Rio Santa and Vilcanota, Urubamba and Vilcabamba catchments in Peru. Averaging was applied over the entire model period from 1980 to 2018. Data includes: - Averaged precipitation and air temperature records and the related standard deviation at a 4km resolution (annually and for each season) for each catchment. Monthly averaged and monthly totals of air temperature and precipitation (averaged over each catchment). - WRF model input elevation for each catchment. - WRF total precipitation and maximum/minimum air temperature at the location of five on-glacier weather stations (Artesonraju Glacier, Shallap Glacier, Cuchillacocha Glacier, Quisoquipina Glacier and Quelccaya Ice Cap) at a daily resolution from 1980 to 2018. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/7dbb2d72-7032-4cfa-bc9b-aa02bebe8df5

  • The data resource consists of half hourly time series of heat (latent and sensible) and trace gas (carbon dioxide and methane) fluxes obtained by eddy-covariance, gas concentrations and ancillary meteorological data (e.g. air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, photosynthetically active radiation, total incoming radiation, wind speed and direction). The data were collected at Guma Lagoon (18°57'53.01"S; 22°22'16.20"E), in the perennially flooded area of the Okavango Delta, Botswana, for the purpose of quantifying greenhouse gas fluxes over a Cyperus papyrus stand. The measurement period was 01/01/2018 to 31/12/2020. The instrumentation was installed the UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; monthly maintenance and data collection visits were effected by the Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana. The research was funded through NERC grant reference NE/N015746/2 - The Global Methane Budget. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/d366ed40-af8c-42be-86f2-bb90b11a659e

  • [This dataset is embargoed until November 17, 2025]. This dataset provides daily estimates at locations that are part of the COSMOS-UK monitoring network for meteorological and potential evapotranspiration variables in the Climate hydrology and ecology research support system for the period 2013-2017 (CHESS-met and CHESS-PE). Additionally, for the same period, it provides estimates at COSMOS-UK sites locations for soil moisture simulations provided by JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) at four layers: top layer (0.0-0.1 m depth), second layer (0.1-0.35 m depth), third layer (0.35-1 m depth) and bottom layer (1-3 m depth). The following variables are available in the dataset: daily temperature range (K), specific humidity (kg kg-1), precipitation (kg m-2 s-1), air pressure (Pa), downward longwave radiation (W m-2), downward shortwave radiation (W m-2), wind speed (m s-1), potential evapotranspiration (mm day-1) and potential evapotranspiration with interception correction (mm day-1), soil moisture content of 1-top layer (m depth), soil moisture content of 2-second layer (m depth), soil moisture content of 3-third layer (m depth) and soil moisture content of 4-bottom layer (m depth). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/2bc23a5a-3a47-44da-80f6-ced6ae4ac45f

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. 5km gridded Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) data for Great Britain, which is a drought index based on the probability of precipitation for a given accumulation period as defined by [1]. SPI is calculated for different accumulation periods: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months. Each of these is in turn calculated for each of the twelve calendar months. Note that values in monthly (and for longer accumulation periods also annual) time series of the data therefore are likely to be autocorrelated. The standard period which was used to fit the gamma distribution is 1961-2010. The dataset covers the period from 1862 to 2015. This release supersedes the previous version, doi:10.5285/ed7444fc-8c2a-473e-98cd-e68d3cffa2b0, as it addresses localised issues with the source data (Met Office monthly rainfall grids) for the period 1960 to 2000. It also supersedes version 2 of the dataset with the same title (doi:10.5285/1b228b42-42f8-4aee-b964-2c92a21d5556). Version 2 contained incorrect files for SPI18 (duplicated SPI12 files). NOTE: the difference between this dataset with the previously published dataset 'Gridded Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) using gamma distribution with standard period 1961-2010 for Great Britain [SPIgamma61-10]" [2], apart from the temporal and spatial extent, is the underlying rainfall data from which SPI was calculated. In the previously published dataset, CEH-GEAR [3], [4] was used, whereas in this new version, Met Office 5km rainfall grids were used (see supporting information for more details). The methodology to calculate SPI is the same in the two datasets. [1] McKee, T. B., Doesken, N. J., Kleist, J. (1993). The Relationship of Drought Frequency and Duration to Time Scales. Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology, 17-22 January 1993, Anaheim, California. [2] Tanguy, M.; Hannaford, J.; Barker, L.; Svensson, C.; Kral, F.; Fry, M. (2015). Gridded Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) using gamma distribution with standard period 1961-2010 for Great Britain [SPIgamma61-10]. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. https://doi.org/10.5285/94c9eaa3-a178-4de4-8905-dbfab03b69a0 [3] Keller, V. D. J., Tanguy, M., Prosdocimi, I., Terry, J. A., Hitt, O., Cole, S. J., Fry, M., Morris, D. G., and Dixon, H.: CEH-GEAR: 1 km resolution daily and monthly areal rainfall estimates for the UK for hydrological use, Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., 8, 83-112, doi:10.5194/essdd-8-83-2015, 2015. [4] Tanguy, M.; Dixon, H.; Prosdocimi, I.; Morris, D. G.; Keller, V. D. J. (2014). Gridded estimates of daily and monthly areal rainfall for the United Kingdom (1890-2012) [CEH-GEAR]. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. https://doi.org/10.5285/5dc179dc-f692-49ba-9326-a6893a503f6e Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/12c3a0d7-741c-4b1f-bfcb-f72ce5b43036

  • This dataset represents the hydro-meteorological monitoring activities undertaken in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, during 2016-2018, as part of the DFID funded AMMA-2050 (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) project (amma2050.org). The data comprises time series of rainfall, water level and river flow recorded at locations across Ouagadougou city for the purposes of building an understanding of hydrological function and hydrological model development. In-situ data were collected using tipping bucket raingauges and pressure level sensors, with spot gauging of river flows used to develop rating curves used to derive flow from level measurements in channels. The network was designed and set-up by the UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (UKCEH) and maintained by the Burkina Faso Institut International d’Ingenierie de l’Eau et de l’Environment (2iE) and processing was undertaken by UKCEH. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/30ae0230-e352-4a82-901d-ac1d42449044

  • This data represents twenty-four modelled rainfall depth estimates by GridASCII files across the state of Kerala, India, for four durations (1, 6, 24 and 192 hours) and six return periods (2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years). The estimates were produced using a similar procedure to the Flood Estimation Handbook statistical method for flood frequency estimation: separately for each duration, the estimated median annual maximum (AMAX) rainfall was used as a standardizing “index” value and the estimated L-moments of the AMAX series were used to fit a generalized logistic distribution “growth curve”. The data are in units of mm at a spatial resolution of 0.12 degrees. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/4a08e6f1-e508-4bb6-b571-b3145dd1588e

  • Half-hourly data from eight eddy covariance towers deployed in the Sevilleta Refuge (New Mexico, USA). The main sensors deployed were sonic anemometer, relative humidity sensor and carbon dioxide concentration sensor . They were deployed and maintained by Fabio Boschetti and Andrew Cunliffe (University of Exeter). The data were collected to test the new design of eddy covariance towers and investigate the spatial variability of fluxes. Data were collected from 2018-11-01 to 2019-11-01. The data contains very few small gaps due to maintenance. Half-hourly data were gap-filled using code published on GitHub. The research was funded through NERC grant reference NE/R00062X/1 - "Do dryland ecosystems control variability and recent trends in the land CO2 sink?" Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/e96466c3-5b67-41b0-9252-8f8f393807d7