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  • Whole rock assay data for the El Teniente, Skouries and Muratdere porphyry Cu deposits. Samples were selected for analysis from boreholes in the Muratdere Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, Western Turkey; and the Skouries Cu-Au porphyry deposit, Greece; and samples from the El Teniente Cu-Mo porphyry deposit were selected from the Natural History Museum London’s ore collection. This data contains whole rock assay data performed by ALS, comprising the whole rock concentration of metals and semi-metals from the three deposits. This data was collected as part of the TeaSe consortium NERC grant in order to determine the concentration and hosting of critical and precious metals in various types of ore deposits and barren rocks from different geological environments.

  • This file documents the strontium isotope data, and the manner in which it has been processed, to supply the reference data for isotope domains of the Biosphere Isotope Domains GB (V1) map. It includes a summary of the analytical methods used to determine the isotope ratios though time.

  • Collection of North Pacific core-top foraminifera census data. Grant abstract: The geological record offers an invaluable window into the different ways earth's climate can operate. The most recent large-scale changes in earth's climate, prior to modern climate change, were the Pleistocene glacial cycles, which feature growth and disintegration of large ice sheets, rapid shifts in major rain belts, and abrupt changes in ocean circulation. Changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, reconstructed from air bubbles in ice cores, are intimately linked with these ice age climate events. Indeed the close coupling of CO2 and temperature over glacial-interglacial cycles has become an iconic image in climate science, a poster child for the importance of CO2 in climate, and the natural template against which to compare current man-made CO2 rise. However despite the high profile of glacial-interglacial CO2 change, we still don't fully understand its cause. The leading hypotheses for glacial CO2 change involve increased CO2 uptake by the ocean during ice ages, which is vented to the atmosphere during deglaciation. However despite decades of work these hypotheses have had few direct tests, due to a lack of data on CO2 storage in the glacial ocean. One of the most glaring holes in our understanding of ice age CO2 and climate change is the behaviour of the Pacific. This basin contains half of global ocean volume, and ~30 times more CO2 than the atmosphere, and so its behaviour will have global impact. It has also recently been suggested that the North Pacific may play an active role in deglacial CO2 rise, with local deep water formation helping to release CO2 from the deep ocean to the atmosphere. If correct, this hypothesis provides a new view of Earth's climate system, with deep water able to form in each high latitude basin in the recent past, and the North Pacific potentially playing a pivotal role in deglaciation. However few data exist to test either the long-standing ideas on the Pacific's role in glacial CO2 storage, nor the more recent hypothesis that North Pacific deep water contributed to rapid deglacial CO2 rise. Given the size of the Pacific CO2 reservoir, our lack of knowledge on its behaviour is a major barrier to a full understanding of glacial-interglacial CO2 change and the climate of the ice ages. This proposal aims to transform our understanding of ice age CO2 and climate change, by investigating how the deep North Pacific stored CO2 during ice ages, and released it back to the atmosphere during deglaciations. We will use cutting-edge geochemical measurements of boron isotopes in microfossil shells (which record the behaviour of CO2 in seawater) and radiocarbon (which records how recently deep waters left the surface ocean), on recently collected samples from deep ocean sediment cores. By comparing these new records to other published data, we will be able to distinguish between different mechanisms of CO2 storage in the deep Pacific, and to test the extent of North Pacific deep water formation and CO2 release during the last deglaciation. We will also improve the techniques used to make boron isotope measurements, and add new constraints on the relationship between boron isotopes and seawater CO2 chemistry, which will help other groups using this technique to study CO2 change. To help us understand more about the mechanisms of changes in CO2 and ocean circulation, and provide synergy with scientists in other related disciplines, we will compare our data to results from earth system models, and collaborate with experts on nutrient cycling and climate dynamics. Our project will ultimately improve understanding of CO2 exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, which is an important factor for predicting the path of future climate change.

  • Os isotopes, highly siderophile element abundance measurements, lithophile trace element data, major element data, electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS mineral chemistry of Cr-spinel and sulphide - all data for a suite of peridotites from the Shetland Ophiolite Complex, and published in O'Driscoll, B., Walker, R.J., Clay, P.L., Day, J.M.D., Ash, R.A. and Daly, J.S. 2018. Length-scales of chemical and isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle section of the Shetland Ophiolite Complex, Scotland. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 488, 144-154 All samples come from a locality called The Viels, sampled within a 45 m2 area, on the island of Unst, Shetland Archipelago (UK) at HP64438 11060 (British National Grid)

  • Concentration and accumulation palaeoenvironmental proxy data derived from a 6.3m sedimentary core drilled at Marcacocha, a present-day wetland (formerly a small lake) located at 3355m above sea-level in the Cordillera Oriental of the Peruvian Andes. Multi-proxy analysis of the sediments at decadal to sub-decadal temporal resolution has provided detailed datasets that include sedimentology, palynology, geochemistry, plant macrofossils, diatoms and oribatid mite remains (Chepstow-Lusty et al., 2003, 2007, 2009; Sterken et al., 2006). Select data are presented here relating to the uppermost 1.9m of the sequence (ca. the last 1200 years). The data relate specifically to: Chepstow-Lusty, A., Frogley, M.R., Baker, A.S. Comparison of Sporormiella dung fungal spores and oribatid mites as indicators of large herbivore presence: evidence from the Cuzco region of Peru. J. Arch. Sci. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2018.12.006 Chepstow-Lusty, A., Bennett, K., Fjeldså, J., Kendall, A., Galiano, W., Tupayachi Herrera, A., 1998. Tracing 4000 years of environmental history in the Cuzco area, Peru, from the pollen record. Mt. Res. Dev. 18, 159–172. Chepstow-Lusty, A., Frogley, M.R., Bauer, B.S., Bush, M.B., Tupayachi Herrera, A., 2003. A late Holocene record of arid events from the Cuzco region, Peru. J. Quat. Sci. 18, 491–502. Chepstow-Lusty, A., Frogley, M.R., Bauer, B.S., Leng, M., Cundy, A., Boessenkool, K.P., Gioda, A., 2007. Evaluating socio-economic change in the Andes using oribatid mite abundances as indicators of domestic animal densities. J. Arch. Sci. 34, 1178–1186. Chepstow-Lusty, A.J., Frogley, M.R., Bauer, B., Leng, M.J., Boessenkool, K.P., Carcaillet, C., Ali, A.A., Gioda, A., 2009. Putting the rise of the Inca empire within a climatic and land management context. Clim. Past 5, 1–14. Sterken, M., Sabbe, K., Chepstow-Lusty, A., Frogley, M., Vanhoutte, K., Verleyen, E., Cundy, A., Vyverman, W., 2006. Climate and land-use changes in the Cuzco region (Cordillera Oriental, South East Peru) during the last 1200 years: a diatom based reconstruction. Arch. Hydrobiol. 165, 289–312.

  • We used existing coretop samples from several sites from the Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans (Fig. 1 and Table S1) to test the relationship between Mg/Ca ratios and D47 values in modern foraminifera. In the North Atlantic the cores were the same as those used previously by Elderfield and Ganssen (2000) (Tables S1 and S2). Coretops with the potential to yield large (>5 mg) mono-specific samples of foraminifera were selected from the >300 lm size fraction of the sediment except for Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) where the >150 lm size fraction was chosen to obtain sufficient material. After cleaning the samples consisted of _3 mg of foraminiferal calcite and included 8 different species of surface- and deepdwelling planktonic foraminifera: Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinoides sacculifer, Globorotalia hirsuta, Globorotalia inflata, Globorotalia menardii, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (s), and Orbulina universa. The Godwin Laboratory clumped isotope calibration (i.e., the regression between D47 and temperature) was established using natural cave carbonates that precipitated subaqueously at known temperatures, ranging from 3 to 47ºC (Table 1, Fig. 2). These carbonates grew under conditions that minimize CO2-degassing and evaporation and hence kinetic fractionation effects are negligible owing to an unlimited DIC pool in the water (Kele et al., 2015). All samples consist of calcite, except NAICA-1 which is aragonite.

  • Zeta potential measurements of rare earth element enriched apatite from Jacupiranga, Brazil under water and collector conditions. Zeta potential measurements can be used to indicate the surface behaviour of a mineral under different reagent conditions. Mineral surface behaviour is important in processing and extracting minerals from their host ore, which can be energy intensive. Apatite is a phosphate mineral which can become enriched with rare earth elements. Rare earth elements are important in a wide range of products from iPhones to wind turbines.

  • Data for the figures in the manuscript: S. K. Sahoo, H. Marin-Moreno, L. J. North, I. Falco-Suarez,B. N. Madhusudhan, A. I. Best and T. A. Minshull (2018).Presence and consequences of co-existing methane gas with hydrate under two phase water-hydrate stability conditions , Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JB015598

  • The dataset consists of daily rainfall data for 23 manual rain gauge stations installed by Gro for GooD project within and about the study area. The installed stations covering four river catchments name Ramisi River, Mukurumudzi River, Mtawa River and Mwachema River in Kwale County. The dataset period is from January 2016 to November 2018. Gro for GooD: Groundwater Risk Management for Growth and Development

  • This dataset presents major (ICP-OES) and minor (ICP-MS) element data and fluid pH during interaction of simulated fracturing fluids with the Bowland-Hodder shale at a variety of conditions, i.e. fluid acidity (pH 1-5), temperature (25-70 C), and rock/fluid ratio (from 0.2:200 to 20:200), as well as two end member mineralogical compositions (from 618 m depth and 673 m depth). The data was collected under the SECURe (Subsurface Evaluation of CCS and Unconventional Risks funded under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement number 764531. Data supplied by permission of University of Nottingham and British Geological Survey.