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  • Temperature reconstructions indicate that the Pliocene was ~3 degrees C warmer globally than today, and several recent reconstructions of Pliocene atmospheric CO2 indicate that it was above pre-industrial levels and similar to those likely to be seen this century. However, many of these reconstructions have been of relatively low temporal resolution, meaning that these records may have failed to capture variations associated with the 41 Kyr glacial-interglacial cycles thought to operate in the Pliocene. These data represent new, high temporal resolution alkenone carbon isotope based record of pCO2 spanning 0 to 0.2 and 2.6 to 3.3 million years ago from ODP Site 999 (supplementing our other data repository focused on 2.8 to 3.3 million years ago). Our record allows a) direct comparison of alkenone-derived pCO2 from the Pleistocene to that of the Pliocene and b) comparison of the former to the ice core record. The raw data are sea surface temperature estimates from the Uk'37 proxy, foraminiferal and alkenone d13C values, from which carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis (ep) can be calculated. Using nutrient concentrations (growth rate correction) and SSTs, these ep values can be converted into [CO2(aq)] which in turn can be used to calculate pCO2.

  • Results of Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) study conducted in Kwale County, Kenya in July and August 2017 by University of Nairobi and Water Resources Management Authority as part of the Gro for GooD project ( to determine the existence of deeper aquifers.

  • This data was generated at the University of Kiel, Germany by Wolfgang Kuhnt, paid for by Dr Littler as part of her 2016 NERC Moratorium Award. The data comprises XRF-derived elemental abundances from two Holes (A and B) for International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1448, spanning approximately the Pliocene period.

  • Isotopic geochemical analysis of volcanic samples from across Ethiopia. Data are referenced in Hutchison et al., 2018: The evolution of magma during continental rifting: New constraints from the isotopic and trace element signatures of silicic magmas from Ethiopian volcanoes;

  • The dataset contains hourly river water level data for 3 monitoring sites; Mukurumudzi River (3KD06 Shimba Hills & KISCOL Weir) Ramisi River (Eshu Bridge) in Kwale County, Kenya

  • Geochemical analysis of pyroclasts from Aluto, Ethiopia. Data are referenced in Clarke et al., 2019: Fluidal pyroclasts reveal the intensity of peralkaline rhyolite pumice cone eruptions;

  • "Three spreadsheet tables of biomarker data, element ratios, and accumulation rates. Sediment samples from IODP Expedition 341, Site U1419 in the Gulf of Alaska. Site U1419 is located in 721 m water depth on the continental slope above the Khitrov basin. Extracted lipids were analysed by HPLC-MS. Two independent methods for bulk element geochemistry analyses were applied to the samples. More details available in the paper Zindorf et al., 2020"

  • Spreadsheet containing three tabs of biomarker concentration data for three Mediterranean sapropel records. Core LC21 was collected at 1522m water depth in the Aegean Sea by the R/V Marion Dufresne. An S5 sapropel (core 64PE406-E1) at a water depth of 1760m in the eastern basin aboard the R/V Pelagia. Site 967 of ODP Leg 160 was located at a water depth of 2560 m, south of Cyprus on the lower northern slope of Eratosthenes Seamount, in the eastern Levantine Basin Three core records were extracted for lipid biomarkers and analysed using HPLC and UHPLC-MS. The data and the interpretation of it is available in the published paper; Rush et al., 2019

  • The VOLCORE (Volcanic Core Records) database is a collection of 34,696 visible tephra (volcanic ash and lithological or grain size variations) occurrences reported in the initial reports volumes of all of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP; 1966–1983), the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP; 1983–2003), the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP; 2003–2013) and the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP; 2013-present) up to and including IODP Expedition 381. The combined international ocean drilling programmes (OD) have locations with global coverage. Cored tephra layers and tephra-bearing sediments span timescales from recent to ~150 million years in age. This database is a collection of information about reported visible tephra layers entirely or predominantly composed of volcanic ash. Data include the depth below sea floor, tephra thickness, location, and any reported comments. An approximate age was estimated for most (29,493) of the tephra layers using published age-depth models. The database can be used as a starting point for studies of tephrochronology, volcanology, geochemistry, studies of sediment transport and palaeoclimatology.

  • Monthly sampling of cave drip and lake water from St Michaels Cave and Ragged Staff Cave, Gibraltar.