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These data consist of sets of 3-dimensional gridpoint analyses of the stratosphere which are produced by the Met Office using data from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) instruments onboard the NOAA (National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration) operational polar orbiters. TOVS consists of 3 instruments, the Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU) the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and the High Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS). Daily radiance and geopotential height data are available on a 5 degree latitude / longitude global grid from December 1978 to April 1997. Software is provided to derive potential vorticity. Access permission required so that PI can monitor usage of data.
Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South-East Asian tropical rain forest (OP3-Danum-08) is a 3-year Consortium Grant of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), beginning 1 October 2007. The OP3-Danum-08 consortium consists of 23 PIs and co-PIs from eight UK institutions (seven Universities and one NERC laboratory), plus partners from the Malaysian Meteorological Department, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Yayasan Sabah and USA. The project will utillize the NERC Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements reaserch aircraft ( FAAM) and a Global Atmosheric Watch station , with 100m research tower, in an undisturbed rainforest in Sabah Malaysia. The objectives of the OP3-Danum-08 project are (i) to understand how emissions of reactive trace gases from a tropical rain forest mediate the production and processing of oxidants and particles in the troposphere, and (ii) to better understand the impact of these processes on local, regional and global scale atmospheric composition, chemistry and climate. The field campaign phase of the project consists of 2 separate ground-based measurement periods at the Danum Valley Research centre (7th April - 4th May 2008 and 21st June - 27th July 2008). The second of these campaigns will involve concurrent observations above the ground based site aboard the FAAM BAe 146 aircraft, a collaboration between the Met Office(TM) and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). There was also a ground based measurement period from 10th May - 12th June based at the Sabahmas Estate oil plantation, which was part of the APPRAISE funded ACES project. Data from all 4 parts of the project can be found in the OP3 archive. The OP3 project is led by Professor Nick Hewitt (University of Lancaster)
FireMAFS was led by Prof Martin Wooster (Kings College, London) as part of QUEST Theme 3 (Quantifying and Understanding the Earth System) project. This dataset collection contains the MODIS Land Cover Type product multiple classification schemes, which describe land cover properties derived from observations spanning a year’s input of Terra and Aqua data. The data are stored in a 10 arc minute grid. Fire was the most important disturbance agent worldwide in terms of area and variety of biomass affected, a major mechanism by which carbon is transferred from the land to the atmosphere, and a globally significant source of aerosols and many trace gas species. Despite such clear coupling between fire, climate, and vegetation, fire was not modelled as an interactive component of the climate/earth systems models of full complexity or intermediate complexity, that are used to model terrestrial ecosystem processes principally for simulating CO2 exchanges. The objective of FireMAFS was to resolve these limitations by developing a robust method to forecast fire activity (fire 'danger' indices, ignition probabilities, burnt area, fire intensity etc), via a process-based model of fire-vegetation interactions, tested, improved, and constrained. This used a state-of-the-art EO data products and driven by seasonal weather forecasts issued with many months lead-time. Much of the activity of FireMAFS was shaped by the research and technical priorities of QUESTESM (earth system model). Key activities included the progressive development of the JULES-ED and SPITFIRE submodels. Fire is now very well represented in QESM (Quest Earth System Model), making progress towards a modelling capability for fire risk forecasting in the context of global change.
The International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) has the lead role in addressing land-atmosphere interactions - process modelling, data retrieval algorithms, field experiment design and execution, and the development of global data sets. The ISLSCP II dataset contains comprehensive data over the 10 year period from 1986 to 1995, from the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP). The ISLSCP II datasets are compiled in four key areas: land cover, hydrometeorlolgy, radiation and soils. They are mapped to consistent grids (0.5 x 0.5 degrees for topography, 1 x 1 degrees for meteorological parameters). Some data have a grid size of 0.25 x 0.25 degrees. The temporal resolution for most data sets is monthly (however a few are at finer resolution - 3 hourly). This dataset is public. ISLSCP is one of several projects of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), and has the lead role in addressing land-atmosphere interactions - process modelling, data retrieval algorithms, field experiment design and execution, and the development of global data sets. ISLSCP was established in 1983 under the United Nation's Environmental Programme to promote the use of satellite data for the global land surface data sets needed for climate studies. In 1994, ISLSCP produced a five-volume CD-ROM collection of global data sets to support energy, water and biogeochemical cycling studies, covering 1987 - 1988 - the ISLSCP I Initiative. The ISLSCP I data sets are available via the BADC ISLSCP I page. The ISLSCP working group meet regularly to assist Goddard Space Flight Center staff to coordinate production and publication of the various data sets in the data collection.
The Met. Research Flight (MRF) was a Met Office facility, which operated a well instrumented C-130 Hercules (also referred to as Mk.2 Hercules) aircraft for research purposes. The C-130 was in service from 1972 to 2001 and flew over 1800 research sorties. The large capacity and long endurance of this platform made it ideal for atmospheric research in the areas of cloud physics, atmospheric radiation, atmospheric chemistry, satellite activities, mesoscale meteorology and boundary layer studies. The BADC holds data collected by the C-130 during NERC (Natural Environment Research Council) funded flights, such as those made during ACSOE (Atmospheric Chemistry Studies in the Oceanic Environment) and UTLS (Upper Troposphere - Lower Stratosphere) projects. The basic set of measurements include ozone, nitrogen oxides, water vapour, aerosols, wind, position and temperature. These are often supplemented by project specific measurements. The aircraft was able to operate scientifically throughout the troposphere from a minimum altitude of 15 m (50 ft) where permitted, up to a maximum of 10 km. The aircraft had a maximum working flight time of 12 hours. The C-130 was taken out of service in March 2001 and a new joint NERC-Met Office Facility for Airborne Aircraft Measurements (FAAM) was established operating a BAe-146-301 aircraft.
The Rain in Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) was a US-led international project to study trade wind cumulus clouds in the Caribbean. The main objective was to characterise and understand the properties of trade wind cumulus at all scales, with particular emphasis on understanding the warm rain process and determining its importance. The field campaign took place near Antigua and Barbuda from the 17th of November 2004 to the 24th of January 2005. The UK participation to RICO involved ground-based measurements and the use of the FAAM aircraft based at Antigua, from the 5th to the 28th of January 2005.
The Coastal Air Pollution (CAP) field campaigns in 2009 and 2010 (CAP-2009 and CAP-2010 respectively) sought to investigate the impact of local meteorology on coastal air quality and the structure and evolution of the coastal boundary layer. This dataset consists of surface, tower and airbourne measurements of atmospheric chemistry and vertical wind profiles from the Coastal Air Pollution (CAP) field campaign, led by Dr. Claire Reeves (University of East Anglia, UEA). Airborne measurements were made by instrumentation on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements's (FAAM) BAE 146 aircraft, with surface and tower measurements from the Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory (WAO) and the Facility for Ground-based Atmsopheric Measurements's (FGAM) 1290Mhz mobile wind profiling radar providing vertical profiles of winds, signal to noise ratios and spectral width data. These data were used to investigate the impact of local meteorology on coastal air quality and the structure and evolution of the coastal boundary layer. The objectives of the campaign was to: a) characterise the chemical composition of the air above and around WAO in various meteorological conditions to determine how representative the WAO observations are of the coastal region and of the air-mass origin (esp. in the case of maritime/Arctic air); b) determine the local flow patterns that can be established around WAO which may influence the redistribution of pollutants and to aid future identification of such patterns with the more limited vertical data that is routinely collected at WAO; c) identify patterns that decouple polluted layers from the surface; d) characterise the off-shore pollution sources (ship emissions, emissions from off-shore gas platforms) which impact measurements at WAO under maritime conditions; and, e) provide test cases for the one-dimensional MISTRA model of vertical profiles of trace components in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere, especially providing information about vertical exchange.
The new satellite instrument, IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer), is a moderate resolution (0.25 cm-1) Fourier Transform spectrometer launched in 2002 on the European METOP satellite. This instrument offers more spectral channels at a considerably higher spectral resolution than HIRS (High Resolution Infrared Sounder) - the instrument which it replaced as the operational infra-red sounder. IASI delivers vertical profiles of temperature and humidity data with a resolution of 1km compared with approximately 4km from HIRS. Translating the improvement in the spectral resolution of the instrument into improvements in the accuracy and height resolution of the temperature, humidity and ozone profiles is dependent on a detailed knowledge of the spectroscopy of the atmosphere in this spectral region. The aim of the Validation of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) Radiative Transfer Experiments and Modelling (VIRTEM) project was to make the improvements to the spectroscopy necessary to make full use of the increased spectral resolution of IASI. The primary objectives of the VIRTEM project were: *To generate a detailed set of atmospheric observations of radiances and supporting in-situ data. *To analyse and validate the current spectroscopy using state of the art line-by-line radiation models. *To generate an improved spectroscopic database. VIRTEM was an EU project to validate the instrumentation and retrieval methods to be used on IASI. Data in this dataset collection include both aircraft based and lab based spectroscopic measurements.
The European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE) was undertaken in the northern winter of 1991-92 to study the processes in the Arctic which lead to ozone destruction and their connection with reduced ozone at northern mid-latitudes. The data from the campaign has been made available on CD-ROM by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). The CDs are held at the BADC. This two CD-ROM set contains measurements made from 16 ground stations throughout Europe, flights made by the three aircraft involved in the campaign, numerous stratospheric balloons launched from Kiruna in northern Sweden and from ozonesondes from 28 European stations. In addition data from the total ozone monitoring network are included. The parameters measured include concentrations of ozone and the members of the chlorine and nitrogen families which are involved in the photochemical destruction of ozone, aerosol and PSC extinctions and meteorological parameters used to study transport into and out of the polar vortex. The EASOE campaign coincided with the NASA AASE-II aircraft campaign and this dataset is also available from the BADC.
The Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) measured vertical profiles of temperature and a number of atmospheric constituents. ISAMS was built by an instrument team based at Oxford University and launched on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) on 12th September 1991 and operated until July 1992. The Principal Investigator is Prof. Frederick Taylor. ISAMS is an infra-red radiometer, which observes thermal emission from the Earth's limb. The technique of pressure modulator radiometry is used to derive vertical profiles of temperature, mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO), water vapour (H2O), methane (CH4), ozone (O3), nitric acid (HNO3), dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and aerosol extinction. Further details can be found in the help file written at the BADC. The data coverage extends from 80°S to 80°N, but at any one time this is usually restricted to 34°S to 80°N or 34°N to 80°S. The vertical coverage of the measurements is from the tropopause to the mesopause (15-80 km). The range over which retrievals are valid is outlined in the help file. The BADC holds ISAMS data at level 3A and version 10 and ISAMS data at level 2 (uninterpolated profiles at measurement locations) and version 8, the latter has restricted access.