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Temperature of the water column

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  • For around a decade, southern elephant seals (mirounga leonina) have been used to collect hydrographic (temperature & salinity) profiles in the Southern Ocean. CTD-SRDLs (Conductivity Temperature Depth –Satellite Relayed Data Loggers) attached to seals' heads in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic locations measure water property profiles during dives and transmit data using the ARGOS (Advanced Research & Global Observation Satellite) network (Fedak 2013). CTD-SRDLs are built by the Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU, University of St Andrews, UK); they include miniaturised CTD units made by Valeport Ltd. When seals are foraging at sea 2.5 profiles can be obtained daily, on average. Profiles average 500m depth, but can be 2000m in extreme cases (Boehme et al. 2009, Roquet et al. 2011). Deployment efforts have been very intensive in the Southern Indian Ocean, with biannual campaigns in the Kerguelen Islands since 2004 and many deployments in Davis and Casey Antarctic stations (Roquet et al., 2013) more recently. 207 CTD-SRDL tags have been deployed there, giving about 75,000 hydrographic profiles in the Kerguelen Plateau area. About two thirds of the dataset was obtained between 2011 & 2013 as a consequence of intensive Australian Antarctic station deployments. There is also regular data since 2004 from French and Franco-Australian Kerguelen Island deployments. Although not included here, many CTD-SRDL tags deployed in the Kerguelen Islands included a fluorimeter. Fluorescence profiles can be used as a proxy for chlorophyll content (Guinet et al. 2013, Blain et al. 2013). Seal-derived hydrographic data have been used successfully to improve understanding of elephant seal foraging strategies and their success (Biuw et al., 2007, Bailleul, 2007). They provide detailed hydrographic observations in places and seasons with virtually no other data sources (Roquet et al. 2009, Ohshima et al. 2013, Roquet et al. 2013). Hydrographic data available in this dataset were edited using an Argo-inspired procedure and then visually. Each CTD-SRDL dataset was adjusted using several delayed-mode techniques, including a temperature offset correction and a linear-in-pressure salinity correction - described in Roquet et al. (2011). Adjusted hydrographic data have estimated accuracies of about +/-0.03oC and +/-0.05 psu (practical salinity unit). The salinity accuracy depends largely on the distribution of CTD data for any given CTD-SRDL, which decides the quality of adjustment parameters. Adjustments are best when hydrographic profiles are available in the region between the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front and the Antarctic divergence (55oS-62oS latitude range in the Southern Indian Ocean). Several institutes provided funding for the associated programs and the logistics necessary for the fieldwork. The observatory MEMO (Mammifères Echantillonneurs du Milieu Marin), funded by CNRS institutes (INSU and INEE), carried out the French contribution to the study. The project received financial and logistical support from CNES (TOSCA program), the Institut Paul-Emile Victor (IPEV), the Total Foundation and ANR. MEMO is associated with the Coriolis centre, part of the SOERE consortium CTD02 (Coriolis-temps différé Observations Océaniques, PI: G. Reverdin), which distributes real-time and delayed-mode products. The Australian contribution came from the Australian Animal Tracking and Monitoring System, an Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) facility. The work was also supported by the Australian Government's Cooperative Research Centres Programme via the Antarctic Climate & Ecosystem Cooperative Research Centre. The University of Tasmania and Macquarie University's Animal Ethics Committees approved the animal handling. Both tagging programs are part of the MEOP (Marine Mammals Exploring the Oceans Pole to Pole) international consortium - an International Polar Year (IPY) project.

  • This dataset is comprised of CTD temperature, salinity and potential temperature collected using seal tags. Data were collected as part of the NERC-funded project 'Ocean processes over the southern Weddell Sea shelf using seal tags'. Data were not collected as part of a cruise as seals were used as data activity platforms. 20 Weddell seals were tagged at the eastern end of the shelf-break north of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf between 11 February 2011 and 03 May 2011. The aims of the project were: 1. The resulting data from the seals’ dives will provide the most comprehensive picture to date of the ocean conditions over the southern Weddell Sea continental shelf. 2. By mapping the temperature of the water near the sea floor it will be possible to determine the locations where dense waters leave the shelf, and the processes involved: either a direct flow down the slope under gravity, or initially mixing at the shelf edge with waters from off the shelf before descending down the slope. 3. To determine where the source waters come onto the shelf. 4. Though the research was primarily oceanographic, the movements and diving behaviour provide insight to seal biologists studying the animals' beahviour. Data were collected as part of NERC standard grants NE/G014086/1 and NE/G014833/1. NE/G014086/1 was the lead grant and was led by Dr Keith William Nicholls of NERC British Antarctic Survey, Science Programmes and runs from 01 April 2010 to 31 December 2018. The secondary grant, NE/G014833/1, was led by Professor Michael Fedak of University of St Andrews, Sea Mammal Research Unit and runs from 01 October 2010 to 28 February 2014. The seal tag CTD data have been received by BODC and are currently available in original format upon request.

  • This dataset comprises sea surface temperature measurements taken close to the time of high water at intervals of three to four days. The measuring programme consisted of approximately 50 observing sites around the shoreline of England and Wales and the data set spans the time period from 1963 to 1990. A few observing sites were already in existence when the network was established, for example observations at the Seven Stones and Varne Light Vessels go back as far as 1905. The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Lowestoft Fisheries Laboratory (MAFF), now known as the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science Lowestoft Laboratory (CEFAS) - part of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), set up a database for these data, supplemented by both the earlier data and also by data from non-MAFF sources. Data from 1963 until 1990 are held at the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC). The time series is ongoing but data later than 1990 are not stored at BODC, these data are available from CEFAS.

  • This data collection consists of sea surface temperature (SST) data collected by recreational surfers around the southern UK and Western Ireland coastline over the period from 5th January 2014 to 8th February 2017. These data were collected as part of a research project supported by Plymouth Marine Laboratory. Over the study period, the recreational surfers collected 297 independent samples of SST. The surfers were equipped with a UTBI-001 Tidbit V2 Temperature Data Logger and a Garmin etrex 10 GPS. The Garmin etrex 10 device was used to extract GPS information (latitude and longitude) for each surf. The Tidbit V2 temperature logger was attached, using cable-ties, at mid-point to the leash of the surfboards to ensure continuous contact with seawater when surfing, measuring temperature in the top metre of the water column. Roughly every 6 months over the study period, the Tidbit V2 temperature loggers were rigorously compared with a VWR1620-200 traceable digital thermometer (with an accuracy of 0.05 degrees C at the range of 0 to 100 degrees C) at 1 degree C intervals from 6 to 25 degrees C using a PolyScience temperature bath. Over the study period, all sensors performed within the manufacturers technical specifications. A piecewise regression to model was used to correct any Tidbit V2 temperature data collected to remove systematic biases between sensors, such that the errors in each sensor were within the accuracy of VWR1620-200 traceable digital thermometer. Temperature data were collected at 10 second intervals during each surfing session. The data were processed to remove any data collected before and after entering the water and SST were extracted by computing the median of the remaining data. Standard deviations on the remaining data are also provided to give an index of SST variability during each surf session.

  • To understand seasonal climatic variability in the North East Atlantic, a fortnightly resolution marine climate record from 1353–2006 was constructed for shallow inshore waters on the west coast of Scotland using red coralline algae. The data are available in an Excel file as mean winter and summer temperatures with 95% confidence intervals for each year from 1353 to 2006. SCUBA was used to collect a 46 cm core from a coralline algal (Lithothamnion glaciale) deposit in Loch Sween, Scotland. The core was frozen and sectioned longitudinally and into 2 cm horizons. Coralline algae from each horizon were sectioned along the length of each thallus. Mg, Ca, and Sr were quantified along each thallus using electron microprobe analysis. For the live collected surface specimens, this process enabled absolute dates to be assigned to each year’s growth band present within the coralline algae. Five thalli down core were selected for radiocarbon rangefinder dating at the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre. Live thalli and the five rangefinder thalli were used as anchor points in construction of a combined chronology which was fine-tuned using dendrochnological techniques. Twenty seven (including anchors) Mg/Ca time series were available; each from an individual thallus. The work was funded by the Natural Environmental Research Council and the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

  • This dataset consists of data from one station (Batiki01) that is are part of a network of temperature sensors on the coastal domain of about twenty territories ReefTEMPS (https://journals.openedition.org/netcom/1294) coordinated by the Grand Observatoire de l'environment et de la biodiversite terrestre et marine du Pacifique Sud (GOPS). The dataset consists of temperature data from a temperature logger attached to a coral head recording temperature every 30 minutes at around 10 metres depth with QC being applied following collection of the logger. The data were collected in the coastal waters of Batiki Island, Fiji (latitude=-17.777467, longitude=179.179867, 2012 to 2015).

  • Sea surface temperature and salinity data have been collected around British coastal waters and in the North Atlantic between 1963 and 1990. The data were collected by ships regularly plying routes between ports in the British Isles and the Continent, and along routes to the North Atlantic Ocean Weather Stations (OWS). Thirty individual shipping routes have been involved, approximately weekly measurements being taken at intervals ranging from 10 to 50 miles depending on the route. The following list details shipping routes and dates of data collection: Bristol - Finistere (Jan 1963 - Nov 1968); Clyde - OWS Alpha (May 1963 - Feb 1974); Clyde - OWS India (Jan 1963 - Jul 1975); Clyde - OWS Juliet (Jan 1963 - Jul 1975); Clyde - OWS Kilo (Mar 1963 - Dec 1972); Clyde - OWS Lima (Mar 1963 - May 1965, Jul 1975 - Dec 1990); Felixstowe - Rotterdam (Aug 1970 - Dec 1990); Fishguard - Cork (Jan 1963 - Oct 1968); Fishguard - Waterford (Jan 1963 - Dec 1966); Folkstone - Boulogne (Jan 1963 - Aug 1966); Heysham - Belfast (Feb 1965 - May 1977); Holyhead - Kish (Jan 1963 - Feb 1966); Hull - Kristiansand (Jan 1963 - May 1976); Larne - Stranraer (Jan 1963 - Feb 1966, Jan 1971 - Dec 1986); Leith - Bremen (Jan 1963 - Apr 1972); Leith - Copenhagen (Jan 1963 - Mar 1968); Liverpool - Belfast (Dec 1970 - Nov 1978); Liverpool - Douglas (Mar 1965 - Nov 1968); Liverpool - Dublin (Mar 1965 - Aug 1979); Liverpool - Larne (Jan 1987 - Dec 1988); Newhaven - Dieppe (Apr 1963 - Feb 1990); Scilly - Shamrock (May 1967 - Mar 1974); Southampton - Le Havre (Jan 1963 - May 1964); Southampton - St. Malo (May 1963 - Sep 1964); Swansea - Cork (May 1970 - Mar 1979); Weymouth - Channel Islands (Nov 1970 - Nov 1985); Weymouth - Cherbourg (Apr 1986 - Sep 1986); Whitehaven - Anglesey (Feb 1965 - Jan 1969). These observations provide useful information on the seasonal and short-term variability of temperature off-shore, and may enhance our knowledge regarding extreme values. The data were collected on behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft Fisheries Laboratory and are stored at the British Oceanographic Data Centre.

  • The data set comprises temperature and salinity hydrocasts collected across the North Atlantic Ocean between 1910 and 1990. The measurements were collected by nine North Atlantic Ocean Weather Ships (OWS): OWS Alpha (1954 – 1974); OWS Bravo (1928 – 1974); OWS Charlie (1910 – 1982); OWS Echo (1910 – 1979); OWS India (1957 – 1975); OWS Juliet (1950 – 1975); OWS Kilo (1949 – 1973); OWS Lima (1948 – 1990); OWS Mike (1948 – 1982). This data set also includes measurements collected close to the general positions prior to the stationing of the Weather ships for the OWS Bravo, Charlie and Echo stations. Data from OWS Alpha, Bravo, Echo, India, Juliett and Kilo have been taken from the US National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) compilations whereas those from OWS Charlie, Lima and Mike have been constructed from both the US NODC and International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES) data holdings. In addition a daily averaged data set for OWS Charlie is available for the period 1975 - 1985 (supplied by Syd Levitus). This data set was supplied to the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) by ICES. Additional files and more recent data can be acquired from the ICES website.

  • A novel temperature dataset for northern high latitude Seas (ATLAS) is a dataset of three-dimensional temperature derived from combining quality controlled Argo float measurements with marine mammal mounted Satellite Relay Data Loggers (SRDLs) profiles. Using data values gathered from across the North Atlantic region, a 1×1 degree gridded temperature dataset of the average monthly values from January 2004 to December 2008, with 15 vertical layers between 0–700 m was produced. Built as complementary to existing ship-based fields, the ATLAS dataset is a community resource to help determine the impacts of climate change on the Labrador and Nordic Seas regions. The data were collated by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC) and are made available from the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC).

  • The UK Argo programme data set comprises measurements of ocean temperature and salinity and provides information of surface and subsurface Lagrangian (measuring movement by tracing the path of a passively drifting object) displacement enabling the derivation of currents. The data set includes a mixture of near-real-time (quality controlled to operational ocean forecasting standards) and delayed mode (quality controlled to climate research standards) data collected by profiling floats. The UK floats from part of a global array throughout the world oceans. Real-time data are available within 24 hours of the float surfacing while delayed mode data become available within 12 months of the profile date. Floats drift at their parking depth (between 1000m and 2025m) for 5 or 10 days depending on float programming. Traditionally floats measured temperature and conductivity at regular intervals during their rise to the surface. In October 2007, the Argo programme achieved its goal to have (and maintain) more than 3000 active floats. As of 2012, some newly deployed floats are being programmed to collect data whilst drifting at their parking depth and during their ascent and additional oceanographic parameters, for example fluorescence, optical backscatter, and dissolved oxygen are being trialled for inclusion in the data set. The data has a variety of uses including assimilation into operational weather forecasts in near-real-time to climate research with the delayed mode data. The data set also includes Argo floats deployed by Mauritius, Saudi Arabia (one float in the Red Sea) Ireland and Portugal, as the British Oceanographic Data Centre manages the data from these floats in addition to those of the UK Argo programme.