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Solar Radiation

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    The Joint Air-Sea Interaction (JASIN) 78 Project Data Set comprises a variety of measurements including upper air and near surface meteorology, and physical oceanography. Meteorological data include air temperature, pressure, humidity and wind, while oceanographic data include temperature, salinity, currents, wave spectra and short-term wave statistics. The data were collected in the North Rockall Trough, an area of deep water (1000m - 2000m) several hundred kilometres off the west coast of Scotland. The experiment lasted for 2 months from mid-July to mid-September 1978 and comprised 2 intensive observational phases preceded by a preparatory test period. Data were collected using a variety of instrumentation, with meteorological data being provided by radiosondes, tethered balloons, and ship- and aircraft-mounted sensors. Hydrographic data were collected via shipboard deployment of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor packages (both standard and yoyo profiles), towed thermistor chains, ship-mounted wave recorders and moored temperature and current meters. The JASIN Project was designed to study the interaction of the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers with the large scale motions of the sea and air. The multiplicity of processes sampled necessitated a large experiment and involved more than 50 teams of investigators from nine countries. The data are held at the British Oceanographic Data Centre and many series are available via BODC's online data delivery portal.

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    This dataset was collected on the cruise JC136 in May and June 2016. This cruise is associated with a NERC joint standard research grant (NE/K011855/1 and NE/K013513/1) entitled “Influence of population connectivity on depth-dependent diversity of deep-sea marine benthic biota”. The aims of the project are to investigate connectivity among deep-sea populations at different depths and spatial scales using: 1) larval dispersal modelling using Lagrangian particle tracking, driven by hydrographic models, 2) population genetics/genomics, and 3) benthic community analysis. The aims of cruise JC136 were then to sample a range of sites and depth bands to: 1. obtain physical samples of 4 model organisms for molecular analysis, 2. gather benthic biological survey data for community level analysis, 3. collect oceanographic data to validate high-resolution oceanographic models with which we will model larval dispersal. The chief scientists of this cruise were Kerry Howell (University of Plymouth School of Marine Science and Engineering) and Michelle L Taylor (University of Oxford Department of Zoology). This dataset contains a variety of navigation data (position, heading, bathymetry), atmospheric measurements (air temperature, wind speed and direction, irradiance and humidity) and sea surface hydrographic data (transmittance, chlorophyll fluorescence, sea surface temperature and conductivity). Data were collected in the NE Atlantic (Rockall Bank, George Bligh Bank, Anton Dohrn Seamount, Wyville-Thomson Ridge, Rosemary Bank) from 27 ROV dives, 12 AUV missions, 43 CTD casts, 2 mooring deployments and equipment trials. All cruise aims were broadly met. 3630 biological samples were obtained, including sufficient depth and site coverage for molecular analysis of 3 target species. Video transect data was also obtained, with sufficient replication and depth stratification from 3 sites and near complete sampling from a 4th. This cruise provides sufficient oceanographic data to validate our models. In addition, 5811.66 km2 of seafloor multibeam was collected to contribute to ongoing efforts to map the North Atlantic, including the first multibeam from the Geike Slide and Hebridean Slope Nature Conservation Marine Protected Area (NCMPA). Poor visibility at the seabed prevented a planned resurvey of the Darwin Mounds Marine Protected Area (MPA).

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    This dataset consists of measurements of underway meteorology, navigation and sea surface hydrography from RRS Discovery cruise DY072 in the Central Atlantic. Data from DY072 were collected between 28 Feb 2017 and 02 April 2017 along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near the Chain and Romanche Fracture Zones. Navigation data were collected using an Applanix POSMV system and meteorology and sea surface hydrography were collected using the NMF Surfmet system. Both systems were run for the duration of the cruise, excepting times for cleaning, entering and leaving port, and while alongside. This cruise formed the field component of NERC Discovery Science project ‘Passive Imaging of the Lithosphere Asthenosphere Boundary’ (PiLAB). The project aims to systematically image the entire length of an oceanic plate, from its birth at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, to its oldest formation on the African margin, in order to determine the processes and properties that define and strengthen a plate. The Discovery Science project was composed of Standard Grant reference NE/M003507/1 as the lead grant with child grant NE/M004643/1. The lead grant runs from 01 February 2016 to 31 January 2019 and the child grant runs from 01 February 2017 to 31 July 2019, and is led by Dr Catherine A Rychart of University of Southampton, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences. Child grant NE/M004643/1 is led by Professor Michael Kendall of University of Bristol, Earth Sciences. The underway discrete salinity samples data and the underway navigation, meteorology and sea surface hydrography data have been received by BODC as raw files from the RRS Discovery, processed and quality controlled using in-house BODC procedures and are available for download on the BODC website.

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    This dataset comprises 4 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, in January 1995 from stations in the English Channel and coastal waters between the Humber and the Wash. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the University of Wales, Bangor School of Ocean Sciences as part of the Land Ocean Interaction Study (LOIS) Rivers, Atmosphere and Coasts Study (RACS).

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    The dataset comprises concentration of gas hydrates beneath the seabed, in the water column and, atmosphere along with the topography of the sea floor. Data were collected in the Arctic Ocean off the NorthWestern coast of Svalbard across the continental margin between 78 and 80 North and 4 and 11 East. The data were collected during cruise JR211 which, over two legs, took place between 23rd August 2008 and 24th September 2008. Geophysical and geological techniques were used to detect methane hydrate beneath the seafloor and to investigate features trough which methane escapes to the seafloor. The seabed was imaged and mapped using a multibeam sonar (Simrad EM120), an echosounder (Simrad EK60), TOBI deep-towed sidescan sonar (30 kHz), widescan sidescan sonar (100 and 350 kHz). The sedimentary layers and geological structures beneath the seabed were imaged with the 7 kHz profiler in TOBI, a TOPAS sub-bottom acoustic profiler and multichannel seismic reflaction (96 channels with 6.25 m group spacing) using two air guns in true GI mode 45/105 cu.in. More accurate information on seismic velocity was obtained by deploying ocean-bottom seismometers on the seabed which contained 3 Sercel L-28 4.5 Hz geophones and a High Tech HTI-90-U hydrophone. Sediment samples were obtained using a piston corer, a gravity corer and, a box corer. Water chemistry was measured from discrete samples taken from bottles attached to the conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package and continuously from the ship's seawater supply. Methane concentration was measured on-board using a headspace technique. Air samples were collected at 12 hour intervals. Sampling occurred on the Navigation Bridge deck and the side of the ship upwind of the ships emissions was chosen each time. Additional samples were also collected close to the ship's funnel, to check for contamination, and from the gas released by the cores when in an inert atmosphere (N2). Analysis of methane mixing ratio is performed by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionisation Detector (GC-FID) and the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane is analysed using a continuous flow Gas Chromatography - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-IRMS) system. Almost half of the Earth's carbon is stored in gas hydrates and related shallow gas deposits. Numerical models predict that this reservoir is highly mobile and that escaping gas has a significant potential to accelerate climate change releasing as much as 2000 Gt of methane over a short period of time. As methane is a potent greenhouse gas it would course further global warming. Arctic gas hydrates are most vulnerable to future climate change because (1) it is predicted that temperatures will increase faster in the Arctic than in low latitudes (2) the intercept of the gas hydrate stability zone with the seabed is within the reach of fast warming surface waters and (3) the water column above the vulnerable zone of gas hydrates is smaller than in warmer oceans facilitating more efficient transport of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. This information will allow a detailed assessment of the mobility of Arctic gas hydrates and it will significantly decrease the uncertainties involved in climate modelling. The data were collected by the National Oceanographic Centre, Southampton with Professor Tim Minshull as the principal scientist on-board.

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    This dataset comprises 20 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, in October 1994 from stations covering the North Sea coastal zone from The Wash to Berwick upon Tweed. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Plymouth Marine Laboratory as part of the Land Ocean Interaction Study (LOIS) Rivers, Atmosphere and Coasts Study (RACS).

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    The dataset contains physical, biological and chemical oceanographic measurements, and meteorological data. Hydrographic measurements include temperature, salinity, attenuance and backscatter, pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations, while water samples were analysed for concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, hydrocarbons, nutrients and pigments. Samples were also collected for phytoplankton and zooplankton analyses, while results from production experiments are also included in the data set. These oceanographic data are supplemented by surface meteorological measurements. Measurements were taken at sites in the Bellinghausen Sea as part of a 2-ship Eulerian experiment between the 28th of October and the 17th of December 1992. The data were collected via (i) underway sampling (SeaSoar Undulating Oceanographic Recorder (UOR), lightfish, hull-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), meteorology and surface ocean parameters) of which there are 121179 records and (ii) discrete sampling (conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) and expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts, bottle stations, net hauls, productivity incubations) of which there are over 1000 deployments and experiments. The study aimed to measure the magnitude and variability of carbon and nitrogen fluxes during early summer in the Southern Ocean, with particular emphasis on rates and processes in the marginal ice zone. The data were collected and supplied by UK participants in the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS). The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) are responsible for calibrating, processing, quality controlling and documenting the data and assembling the final data set. Underway data are stored as 1 minute interval time series for each cruise with all parameters merged on date/time. The data are fully quality controlled; checks were made for instrument malfunction, fouling, constancy, spikes, spurious values, calibration errors, baseline and salt-water corrections. The discrete data are stored in a relational database (Oracle RDBMS), chiefly as vertical profiles and are uniquely identified by a combination of deployment number and depth.

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    This dataset comprises 84 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, in February 2008 from 2 sites over 25 hour tidal cycles, in Welsh and Hilbre Channels of the Dee Estuary. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory as part of the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Dee Experiment.

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    This dataset comprises 19 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, during January-February 1995 from stations along the North Sea coastal strip between Great Yarmouth and Berwick upon Tweed. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Plymouth Marine Laboratory as part of the Land Ocean Interaction Study (LOIS) Rivers, Atmosphere and Coasts Study (RACS).

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    This dataset comprises 38 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, during September – October 1999 along the Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) from the UK to Montevideo, Uruguay. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Plymouth Marine Laboratory as part of the Atlantic Meridional Transect (Phase 1) programme.