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Atmospheric Conditions

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  • This dataset comprises observations of snowline from the Snow Survey of Great Britain (SSGB) at 140 sites across Scotland . Daily observations were made between 1945 and 2007. Observations were made by a ground observer who looked out from a given location at 0900 GMT each day and noted the elevation at which snow cover was greater than 50%. The initial aim was to 'secure representative data relating to the occurrence of snow cover at different altitudes in the various upland districts over the period October to June'. The data were collated by the British Glaciological Society until 1954 and thereafter by the Met Office. It has been transcribed from paper records held in the Met Office archives in Edinburgh. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/caf989a5-82d7-4db7-b6ff-c0475fdae07e

  • The data provide critical loads of acidity, and of nutrient nitrogen for the distributions of UK habitats sensitive to acidification and/or eutrophication. Critical loads have been calculated and applied to UK natural and semi-natural habitats sensitive to acidification and/or eutrophication (excess nitrogen as a nutrient). Critical loads data are available for these habitat types at 1x1 km resolution for the UK. In addition, acidity critical loads are available for 1752 selected freshwater sites throughout the UK. Critical loads are defined as the maximum pollutant load (of acid or nitrogen deposition) that a sensitive element of the environment (e.g., soils, vegetation) can tolerate without adverse harmful effects occurring, according to present knowledge. Habitat distributions are defined from a combination of CEH Land Cover Map 2000 and a number of ancillary data sets (e.g., species distributions, altitude, soils), used to further refine their distributions. It should be noted that the habitat distributions maps and areas provided here and used for UK critical loads research for Defra (a) only include areas where data exist for the calculation or derivation of critical loads; (b) may differ from other national habitat distribution maps or estimates of habitat areas. This may also result in a difference in the total habitat areas mapped for acidity and for nutrient nitrogen critical loads. The data have been generated under numerous Defra-funded contracts that brought together UK experts on the impacts of air pollution on UK habitats. The acidity critical loads data were last revised in 2004 and the nutrient nitrogen critical loads data were updated in 2011. The data are based on methods agreed at national and international meetings and workshops held under the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/299e2779-0787-46bb-9482-03ad474eae27

  • This dataset provides UK maps of baseline prior uncertainty (UQ) in fluxes of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide, CO2 (2014-15) and methane, CH4 (2015). Spatial maps of these GHG emissions are produced annually in the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) but it is important to quantify uncertainty in these maps. These uncertainty estimates come from sectoral uncertainty data provided by the NAEI. Here, we propagate the uncertainty in the maps for each of the sectors contributing to the emissions using a Monte Carlo method, in order to quantify the uncertainty in the total emissions spatially. The Monte Carlo method employed here uses a novel approach (Nearest Neighbour Gaussian Process) to make calculations computationally affordable. These estimate the influence on the overall uncertainty of unknown errors in the model structure. Further details of the methodology used here can be found in the supporting documentation included with this data. In the near term, this methodology will be used and developed further in the NERC-funded project, DARE-UK (NE/S003614/1), to update UQ in maps of CO2 and CH4 for the UK. For that work and in general, it is useful to have a baseline prior uncertainty quantification against which future UK maps of uncertainty in CO2 and CH4 fluxes can be compared. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/739c65a5-12c0-439b-bbcd-1252a4086e87

  • This dataset is a model output from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) model applied to the UK (EMEP4UK) driven by Weather and Research Forecast model meteorology (WRF). It provides UK estimates annual averaged atmospheric composition at approximately 5Km grid for the year 2015 for a set of vegetation removal experiments. * UK current vegetation * UK no vegetation * UK Urban current vegetation * UK No urban vegetation * UK Urban 25% open greenspace conversion * UK Urban 50% open greenspace conversion The EMEP model version used here is the rv4.10 and rv4.17, and the WRF model version is the 3.7.1. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability and the Office of National Statistics to support the ONS-Defra natural capital accounting programme in the UK. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/bad6721c-574b-4229-b023-c7b13ae4c099

  • Data comprise monthly ammonia air concentrations from UK CEH ALPHA® (Adapted Low-cost Passive High Absorption) samplers co-located with UKEAP DELTA sites. The UK Eutrophying and Acidifying atmospheric Pollutants (UKEAP) network measures air pollutants at rural sites across the UK. The UK CEH ALPHA® sampler is a passive sampler for measuring NH3 in air. Originally the purpose of these measurements was for a calibrated ALPHA® uptake rate for the UK CEH Edinburgh research laboratory. Local site operator duties are completed by UK CEH staff and AFBI staff (at Hillsborough) and analysis is completed by UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Edinburgh. The sites were set up on 1st March 2020 and measurements are ongoing. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/1766eb32-1878-47e6-8dc8-d434957d1e32

  • This data resource consists of two files: (a) 1x1 km resolution Average Accumulated Exceedance (AAE) data summarising the exceedances of acidity critical loads for eight habitats; (b) 1x1 km resolution AAE data summarising the exceedances of nutrient nitrogen critical loads for thirteen habitats. The data provide information on the amount of excess acid or nitrogen deposition above the critical load values set to protect acid- and nitrogen-sensitive habitats in the UK. The AAE has been calculated using UK 5x5 km Concentration Based Estimated Deposition (CBED) data for 2013-15 (https://doi.org/10.5285/fd8151e9-0ee2-4dfa-a254-470c9bb9bc1e). The data were generated under Defra-funded work to assess the potential areas of acid and nitrogen sensitive habitats at risk of adverse impacts from excess atmospheric acid and nitrogen deposition. Reducing the area and amount of critical load exceedance continues to be a driver of Government policy on reducing emissions of acidic and nitrogen-containing air pollutants (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonia). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/e32745d2-fb56-4f91-a235-6b213a8b45cb

  • Future Flows Climate (FF-HadRM3-PPE) is an 11-member ensemble climate projection for Great Britain at a 1-km resolution spanning from 1950 to 2098. It was specifically developed for hydrological application and contain daily time series of Available Precipitation, which is the precipiated water available to hydrological processes after delays due to snow and ice storage are accounted for; and monthly reference Potential Evapotranspiration calculated using the FAO56 method. Future Flows Climate is derived from the Hadley Centre's Regional climate projection ensemble HadRM3-PPE based on 11 different variants of the regional climate model run under the SRES A1B emission scenario. HadRM3-PPE is underpinning the UKCP09 products. Bias correction and spatial downscaling were applied to the total precpitation and air temperature variables before Future Flows Climate APr and PE were generated. The development of Future Flows Climate was made during the partnership project 'Future Flows and Groundwater Levels' funded by the Environment Agency for England and Wales, Defra, UK Water Research Industry, NERC (Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and British Geological Survey) and Wallingford HydroSolutions. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/bad1514f-119e-44a4-8e1e-442735bb9797

  • This dataset contains total nitrogen (N) deposition at a 1km x 1km resolution in the UK, annually from 1990 to 2017. N deposition is presented as reduced N (NHx) and oxidised N (NOy), both of which are split into wet and dry portions. Values are given for forest and moorland land cover, as well as a weighted mean to each grid cell (‘grid average’). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/9b203324-6b37-4e91-b028-e073b197fb9f

  • This web map service (WMS) provides Concentration Based Estimated Deposition (CBED) values of sulphur and nitrogen atmospheric deposition for 5x5 kilometre (km) grid squares of the UK averaged over the years 2011 to 2013. The maps show deposition values (kg ha-1 year-1) for oxidised nitrogen (NO2/NO3), reduced nitrogen (NH3/NH4) , non-marine sulphur (SO2/SO4) and base cations (Ca+Mg) . These total deposition values are the sum of four components calculated separately: wet deposition, dry deposition of gases, dry deposition of particulate matter and cloud droplet deposition. Habitat-specific data are provided for (i) moorland/short vegetation everywhere, and (ii) forest everywhere. Additionally, the grid square average over multiple land cover types (i.e. arable, grassland, forest, moorland, urban) is also provided.

  • The WATCH Forcing data is a twentieth century meteorological forcing dataset for land surface and hydrological models. It consists of three/six-hourly states of the weather for global half-degree land grid points. It was generated as part of the EU FP 6 project "WATCH" (WATer and global CHange") which ran from 2007-2011. The data was generated in 2 tranches with slightly different methodology: 1901-1957 and 1958-2001, but generally the dataset can be considered as continuous. More details regarding the generation process can be found in the associated WATCH technical report and paper in J. Hydrometeorology. To understand how the data grid is formed it is necessary to read the attached WFD-land-long-lat-z files either in NetCDF or DAT formats. The data covers land points only and excludes the Antarctica. Tair or air temperature is the 2m air temperature (instantaneous) measured in K at 6 hourly resolution and 0.5 x 0.5 degrees spatial resolution.