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  • The WATCH Forcing data is a twentieth century meteorological forcing dataset for land surface and hydrological models. It consists of three/six-hourly states of the weather for global half-degree land grid points. It was generated as part of the EU FP 6 project "WATCH" (WATer and global CHange") which ran from 2007-2011. The data was generated in 2 tranches with slightly different methodology: 1901-1957 and 1958-2001, but generally the dataset can be considered as continuous. More details regarding the generation process can be found in the associated WATCH technical report and paper in J. Hydrometeorology. To understand how the data grid is formed it is necessary to read the attached WFD-land-long-lat-z files either in NetCDF or DAT formats. The data covers land points only and excludes the Antarctica. Tair or air temperature is the 2m air temperature (instantaneous) measured in K at 6 hourly resolution and 0.5 x 0.5 degrees spatial resolution.

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. 1km resolution gridded potential evapotranspiration over Great Britain for the years 1961-2015. This dataset contains time series of two potential evapotranspiration variables. The first is potential evapotranspiration (PET) (mm/day) calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation [1] for FAO-defined well-watered grass [2]. The second is potential evapotranspiration with interception correction (PETI) (mm/day), which adds a correction for interception by a well-watered grass on days in which there is rainfall. Both PET and PETI are calculated using the Climate Hydrology and Ecology research Support System meteorology dataset (CHESS-met) meteorological variables [3]. [1] Monteith, J. L.: Evaporation and environment, in: 19th Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology, University Press, Cambridge, 1965 [2] Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M.: Crop evapotranspiration - Guidelines for computing crop water requirements, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 1998. [3] Robinson, E. L., Blyth, E., Clark, D. B., Finch, J., Rudd, A. C. (2016). Climate hydrology and ecology research support system meteorological dataset (1961-2015) [CHESS-met] . NERC-Environmental Information Data Centre https://doi.org/10.5285/10874370-bc58-4d23-a118-ea07df8a07f2 Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/8baf805d-39ce-4dac-b224-c926ada353b7

  • The European Monitoring and Evaluation Program Unified Model for the UK (EMEP4UK) simulates the year 2001 to 2014 UK daily average atmospheric composition at a horizontal resolution of 5 x 5 km2. The species included in this dataset are surface daily average concentrations of: nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), sulphate (SO42-), PM2.5 organic matter, and ground level ozone (O3). The EMEP4UK model framework consists of an atmospheric chemistry transport model (ACTM) which simulates hourly to annual average atmospheric composition and deposition of various pollutants and the weather research and forecast model (WRF). Pollutants simulated include fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), secondary organic aerosols (SOA), elemental carbon (EC), secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and ground level ozone (O3). Dry and wet deposition of pollutants are also generated by the EMEP4UK. WRF is used to calculate the required meteorological input data for the ACTM. The version of EMEP4UK used to model the 2001-2014 dataset available here is based on the EMEP Meteorological Synthesizing Centre West (MSC-W) model version rv4.4. Notes: Only the simulations for the years between 2002-2012 include data for from forest fire. The emissions used for simulating the years 2013 and 2014 are the same as the year 2012 (updated date will be made available as soon as 2013 and 2014 national emission inventory data have been processed). The calculated year 2001-2012 use a different version of the WRF model, moreover for the year 2013 and 2014 the WRF model setup was changed as the specific Humidity is no longer nudged with re-analysis in the WRF simulation.

  • The WATCH Forcing data is a twentieth century meteorological forcing dataset for land surface and hydrological models. It consists of three/six-hourly states of the weather for global half-degree land grid points. It was generated as part of the EU FP 6 project "WATCH" (WATer and global CHange") which ran from 2007-2011. The data was generated in 2 tranches with slightly different methodology: 1901-1957 and 1958-2001, but generally the dataset can be considered as continuous. More details regarding the generation process can be found in the associated WATCH technical report and paper in J. Hydrometeorology. To understand how the data grid is formed it is necessary to read the attached WFD-land-long-lat-z files either in NetCDF or DAT formats. The data covers land points only and excludes the Antarctica. LWdown or surface incident longwave radiation (also known as downwards long-wave radiation flux ) is the surface incident longwave radiation averaged over the next six hours, measured in W/m2 at 6 hourly resolution and 0.5 x 0.5 degrees spatial resolution.

  • The WATCH Forcing data is a twentieth century meteorological forcing dataset for land surface and hydrological models. It consists of three/six-hourly states of the weather for global half-degree land grid points. It was generated as part of the EU FP 6 project "WATCH" (WATer and global CHange") which ran from 2007-2011. The data was generated in 2 tranches with slightly different methodology: 1901-1957 and 1958-2001, but generally the dataset can be considered as continuous. More details regarding the generation process can be found in the associated WATCH technical report and paper in J. Hydrometeorology. To understand how the data grid is formed it is necessary to read the attached WFD-land-long-lat-z files either in NetCDF or DAT formats. The data covers land points only and excludes the Antarctica. PSurf or surface pressure is the surface pressure (instantaneous) measured in Pa at 6 hourly resolution and 0.5 x 0.5 degrees spatial resolution.

  • The dataset contains annual global plant respiration (and related diagnostics, such as Net Primary Productivity, Gross Primary Productivity and soil respiration), applicable for pre-industrial times (taken as year 1860) through to the end of the 21st Century (year 2100). The spatial resolution of the data is 2.5 degrees latitude x 3.75 degrees longitude. These diagnostics are outputs from the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES land surface model) under four different approaches to calcluate leaf respiration. Each of four sets contains a total of 34 runs, each driven by a different CMIP5 model climate pattern, using the Integrated Model Of Global Effects of climatic aNomalies (IMOGEN) system. These are for a "business-as-usual" approach to fossil fuel usage, as the Representative Concentration Pathway scenario RCP8.5. These simulations form the basis for new research paper by Huntingford et al (2017, under review). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/24489399-5c99-4050-93ee-58ac4b09341a

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. 5km gridded Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) data for Great Britain, which is a drought index based on the probability of precipitation for a given accumulation period as defined by [1]. SPI is calculated for different accumulation periods: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months. Each of these is in turn calculated for each of the twelve calendar months. Note that values in monthly (and for longer accumulation periods also annual) time series of the data therefore are likely to be autocorrelated. The standard period which was used to fit the gamma distribution is 1961-2010. The dataset covers the period from 1862 to 2015. This release supersedes the previous version, doi:10.5285/ed7444fc-8c2a-473e-98cd-e68d3cffa2b0, as it addresses localised issues with the source data (Met Office monthly rainfall grids) for the period 1960 to 2000. It also supersedes version 2 of the dataset with the same title (doi:10.5285/1b228b42-42f8-4aee-b964-2c92a21d5556). Version 2 contained incorrect files for SPI18 (duplicated SPI12 files). NOTE: the difference between this dataset with the previously published dataset 'Gridded Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) using gamma distribution with standard period 1961-2010 for Great Britain [SPIgamma61-10]" [2], apart from the temporal and spatial extent, is the underlying rainfall data from which SPI was calculated. In the previously published dataset, CEH-GEAR [3], [4] was used, whereas in this new version, Met Office 5km rainfall grids were used (see supporting information for more details). The methodology to calculate SPI is the same in the two datasets. [1] McKee, T. B., Doesken, N. J., Kleist, J. (1993). The Relationship of Drought Frequency and Duration to Time Scales. Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology, 17-22 January 1993, Anaheim, California. [2] Tanguy, M.; Hannaford, J.; Barker, L.; Svensson, C.; Kral, F.; Fry, M. (2015). Gridded Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) using gamma distribution with standard period 1961-2010 for Great Britain [SPIgamma61-10]. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. https://doi.org/10.5285/94c9eaa3-a178-4de4-8905-dbfab03b69a0 [3] Keller, V. D. J., Tanguy, M., Prosdocimi, I., Terry, J. A., Hitt, O., Cole, S. J., Fry, M., Morris, D. G., and Dixon, H.: CEH-GEAR: 1 km resolution daily and monthly areal rainfall estimates for the UK for hydrological use, Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., 8, 83-112, doi:10.5194/essdd-8-83-2015, 2015. [4] Tanguy, M.; Dixon, H.; Prosdocimi, I.; Morris, D. G.; Keller, V. D. J. (2014). Gridded estimates of daily and monthly areal rainfall for the United Kingdom (1890-2012) [CEH-GEAR]. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. https://doi.org/10.5285/5dc179dc-f692-49ba-9326-a6893a503f6e Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/12c3a0d7-741c-4b1f-bfcb-f72ce5b43036

  • The WATCH forcing data (WFD) is a twentieth century meteorological forcing dataset for land surface and hydrological models. It consists of three/six-hourly states of the weather for global half-degree land grid points. It was generated as part of the EU FP 6 project "WATCH" (WATer and global CHange") which ran from 2007-2011. The data was generated in 2 tranches with slightly different methodology: 1901-1957 and 1958-2001, but generally the dataset can be considered as continuous. More details regarding the generation process can be found in the associated WATCH technical report and paper in J. Hydrometeorology. To understand how the data grid is formed it is necessary to read the attached WFD-land-long-lat-z files either in NetCDF or dat formats. The data covers land points only and excludes the Antarctica. Rainf or rainfall rate is the rainfall rate based on the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) bias corrected, undercatch corrected measured in kg/m2/s at 3 hourly resolution averaged over the next 3 hours and at 0.5 x 0.5 degrees spatial resolution. Please note that there is also a WFD Rainf CRU bias corrected dataset, but as the GPCC dataset is the preferred dataset only this rainfall dataset is available from the EIDC. These rainfall datasets contain rainfall data only and need to be combined with the respective WFD snowfall datasets to obtain precipitation data.

  • The WATCH Forcing data is a twentieth century meteorological forcing dataset for land surface and hydrological models. It consists of three/six-hourly states of the weather for global half-degree land grid points. It was generated as part of the EU FP 6 project "WATCH" (WATer and global CHange") which ran from 2007-2011. The data was generated in 2 tranches with slightly different methodology: 1901-1957 and 1958-2001, but generally the dataset can be considered as continuous. More details regarding the generation process can be found in the associated WATCH technical report and paper in J. Hydrometeorology. To understand how the data grid is formed it is necessary to read the attached WFD-land-long-lat-z files either in NetCDF or DAT formats. The data covers land points only and excludes the Antarctica. SWdown or surface incident shortwave radiation is the surface incident shortwave radiation measured in W/m2 at 3 hourly resolution, based on the average over the next 3 hours at the surface and at 0.5 x 0.5 degrees spatial resolution.

  • The WATCH Forcing data is a twentieth century meteorological forcing dataset for land surface and hydrological models. It consists of three/six-hourly states of the weather for global half-degree land grid points. It was generated as part of the EU FP 6 project "WATCH" (WATer and global CHange") which ran from 2007-2011. The data was generated in 2 tranches with slightly different methodology: 1901-1957 and 1958-2001, but generally the dataset can be considered as continuous. More details regarding the generation process can be found in the associated WATCH technical report and paper in J. Hydrometeorology. To understand how the data grid is formed it is necessary to read the attached WFD-land-long-lat-z files either in NetCDF or DAT formats. The data covers land points only and excludes the Antarctica. Wind or near surface wind speed at 10m is the near surface wind speed at 10m in m/s-1 at 6 hourly resolution and 0.5 x 0.5 degrees spatial resolution.