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  • The dataset contains annual global plant respiration (and related diagnostics, such as Net Primary Productivity, Gross Primary Productivity and soil respiration), applicable for pre-industrial times (taken as year 1860) through to the end of the 21st Century (year 2100). The spatial resolution of the data is 2.5 degrees latitude x 3.75 degrees longitude. These diagnostics are outputs from the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES land surface model) under four different approaches to calcluate leaf respiration. Each of four sets contains a total of 34 runs, each driven by a different CMIP5 model climate pattern, using the Integrated Model Of Global Effects of climatic aNomalies (IMOGEN) system. These are for a "business-as-usual" approach to fossil fuel usage, as the Representative Concentration Pathway scenario RCP8.5. These simulations form the basis for new research paper by Huntingford et al (2017, under review). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/24489399-5c99-4050-93ee-58ac4b09341a

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. 1km resolution gridded meteorological variables over Great Britain for the years 1961-2012. This dataset contains time series of daily mean values of air temperature (K), specific humidity (kg kg-1), wind speed (m s-1), downward longwave radiation (W m-2), downward shortwave radiation (W m-2), precipitation (kg m-2 s-1) and air pressure (Pa), plus daily temperature range (K). These are the variables required to run the JULES land surface model [1] with daily disaggregation. The precipitation data were obtained by scaling the Gridded estimates of daily and monthly areal rainfall (CEH-GEAR) daily rainfall estimates [2,3] to the units required for JULES input. Other variables were interpolated from coarser resolution datasets, taking into account topographic information. [1] Best, M. J., Pryor, M., Clark, D. B., Rooney, G. G., Essery, R. L. H., Ménard, C. B., Edwards, J. M., Hendry, M. A., Porson, A., Gedney, N., Mercado, L. M., Sitch, S., Blyth, E., Boucher, O., Cox, P. M., Grimmond, C. S. B., and Harding, R. J.: The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), model description - Part 1: Energy and water fluxes, Geoscientific Model Development, 4, 677-699, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-677-2011, 2011. [2] Tanguy, M., Dixon, H., Prosdocimi, I., Morris, D. G., Keller, V. D. J. (2014). Gridded estimates of daily and monthly areal rainfall for the United Kingdom (1890-2012) [CEH-GEAR]. NERC-Environmental Information Data Centre doi:10.5285/5dc179dc-f692-49ba-9326-a6893a503f6e [3] Keller,V. D. J., Tanguy, M. , Prosdocimi, I. , Terry, J. A. , Hitt, O., Cole, S. J. , Fry, M., Morris, D. G., Dixon, H. (2015) CEH-GEAR: 1km resolution daily and monthly areal rainfall estimates for the UK for hydrological use. Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., 8, 83-112, www.earth-syst-sci-data-discuss.net/8/83/2015/ doi:10.5194/essdd-8-83-2015. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/80887755-1426-4dab-a4a6-250919d5020c

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. 1 km gridded estimates of daily and monthly rainfall for Great-Britain and Northern Ireland (together with approximately 3000 km2 of catchment in the Republic of Ireland) from 1890 to 2014. The rainfall estimates are derived from the Met Office national database of observed precipitation. To derive the estimates, monthly and daily (when complete month available) precipitation totals from the UK rain gauge network are used. The natural neighbour interpolation methodology, including a normalisation step based on average annual rainfall, was used to generate the daily and monthly estimates. The estimated rainfall on a given day refers to the rainfall amount precipitated in 24 hours between 9am on that day until 9am on the following day. The CEH-GEAR dataset has been developed according to the guidance provided in BS 7843-4:2012. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/f2856ee8-da6e-4b67-bedb-590520c77b3c

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. 1km resolution gridded meteorological variables over Great Britain for the years 1961-2015. This dataset contains time series of daily mean values of air temperature (K), specific humidity (kg kg-1), wind speed (m s-1), downward longwave radiation (W m-2), downward shortwave radiation (W m-2), precipitation (kg m-2 s-2) and air pressure (Pa), plus daily temperature range (K). These are the variables required to run the JULES land surface model [1] with daily disaggregation. The precipitation data were obtained by scaling the Gridded estimates of daily and monthly areal rainfall (CEH-GEAR) daily rainfall estimates [2,3] to the units required for JULES input. Other variables were interpolated from coarser resolution datasets, taking into account topographic information. This release supersedes the previous version [4], doi:10.5285/10874370-bc58-4d23-a118-ea07df8a07f2, as it corrects errors in the air pressure and daily temperature range files for 2013-2015. [1] Best, M. J., Pryor, M., Clark, D. B., Rooney, G. G., Essery, R. L. H., Ménard, C. B., Edwards, J. M., Hendry, M. A., Porson, A., Gedney, N., Mercado, L. M., Sitch, S., Blyth, E., Boucher, O., Cox, P. M., Grimmond, C. S. B., and Harding, R. J.: The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), model description - Part 1: Energy and water fluxes, Geoscientific Model Development, 4, 677-699. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-4-677-2011, 2011. [2] Tanguy, M.; Dixon, H.; Prosdocimi, I.; Morris, D. G.; Keller, V. D. J. (2016). Gridded estimates of daily and monthly areal rainfall for the United Kingdom (1890-2015) [CEH-GEAR]. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. https://doi.org/10.5285/33604ea0-c238-4488-813d-0ad9ab7c51ca [3] Keller,V. D. J., Tanguy, M. , Prosdocimi, I. , Terry, J. A. , Hitt, O., Cole, S. J. , Fry, M., Morris, D. G., Dixon, H. (2015) CEH-GEAR: 1km resolution daily and monthly areal rainfall estimates for the UK for hydrological use. Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., 8, 83-112. https://doi.org/10.5194/essdd-8-83-2015. [4] Robinson, E.L., Blyth, E., Clark, D.B., Comyn-Platt, E., Finch, J. , Rudd, A.C. (2016). Climate hydrology and ecology research support system meteorology dataset for Great Britain (1961-2015) [CHESS-met]. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. https://doi.org/10.5285/10874370-bc58-4d23-a118-ea07df8a07f2 Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/b745e7b1-626c-4ccc-ac27-56582e77b900

  • The WATCH Forcing data is a twentieth century meteorological forcing dataset for land surface and hydrological models. It consists of three/six-hourly states of the weather for global half-degree land grid points. It was generated as part of the EU FP 6 project "WATCH" (WATer and global CHange") which ran from 2007-2011. The data was generated in 2 tranches with slightly different methodology: 1901-1957 and 1958-2001, but generally the dataset can be considered as continuous. More details regarding the generation process can be found in the associated WATCH technical report and paper in J. Hydrometeorology. To understand how the data grid is formed it is necessary to read the attached WFD-land-long-lat-z files either in NetCDF or DAT formats. The data covers land points only and excludes the Antarctica. Qair or 2m specific humidity (instantaneous) is the instantaneous specific humidity at 2m measured in kg/kg at 6 hourly resolution and 0.5 x 0.5 degrees spatial resolution.

  • The WATCH Forcing data is a twentieth century meteorological forcing dataset for land surface and hydrological models. It consists of three/six-hourly states of the weather for global half-degree land grid points. It was generated as part of the EU FP 6 project "WATCH" (WATer and global CHange") which ran from 2007-2011. The data was generated in 2 tranches with slightly different methodology: 1901-1957 and 1958-2001, but generally the dataset can be considered as continuous. More details regarding the generation process can be found in the associated WATCH technical report and paper in J. Hydrometeorology. To understand how the data grid is formed it is necessary to read the attached WFD-land-long-lat-z files either in NetCDF or DAT formats. The data covers land points only and excludes the Antarctica. LWdown or surface incident longwave radiation (also known as downwards long-wave radiation flux ) is the surface incident longwave radiation averaged over the next six hours, measured in W/m2 at 6 hourly resolution and 0.5 x 0.5 degrees spatial resolution.

  • The WATCH Forcing data is a twentieth century meteorological forcing dataset for land surface and hydrological models. It consists of three/six-hourly states of the weather for global half-degree land grid points. It was generated as part of the EU FP 6 project "WATCH" (WATer and global CHange") which ran from 2007-2011. The data was generated in 2 tranches with slightly different methodology: 1901-1957 and 1958-2001, but generally the dataset can be considered as continuous. More details regarding the generation process can be found in the associated WATCH technical report and paper in J. Hydrometeorology. To understand how the data grid is formed it is necessary to read the attached WFD-land-long-lat-z files either in NetCDF or DAT formats. The data covers land points only and excludes the Antarctica. Wind or near surface wind speed at 10m is the near surface wind speed at 10m in m/s-1 at 6 hourly resolution and 0.5 x 0.5 degrees spatial resolution.

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. 5km gridded Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) data for Great Britain, which is a drought index based on the probability of precipitation for a given accumulation period as defined by McKee et al. [1]. SPI is calculated for different accumulation periods: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months. Each of these is in turn calculated for each of the twelve calendar months. Note that values in monthly (and for longer accumulation periods also annual) time series of the data therefore are likely to be autocorrelated. The standard period which was used to fit the gamma distribution is 1961-2010. The dataset covers the period from 1862 to 2015. This release supersedes the previous version, doi:10.5285/ed7444fc-8c2a-473e-98cd-e68d3cffa2b0, as it addresses localised issues with the source data (Met Office monthly rainfall grids) for the period 1960 to 2000. NOTE: the difference between this dataset with the previously published dataset 'Gridded Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) using gamma distribution with standard period 1961-2010 for Great Britain [SPIgamma61-10]" (Tanguy et al., 2015 [2]), apart from the temporal and spatial extent, is the underlying rainfall data from which SPI was calculated. In the previously published dataset, CEH-GEAR (Keller et al., 2015 [3], Tanguy et al., 2014 [4]) was used, whereas in this new version, Met Office 5km rainfall grids were used (see supporting information for more details). The methodology to calculate SPI is the same in the two datasets. [1] McKee, T. B., Doesken, N. J., Kleist, J. (1993). The Relationship of Drought Frequency and Duration to Time Scales. Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology, 17-22 January 1993, Anaheim, California. [2] Tanguy, M.; Hannaford, J.; Barker, L.; Svensson, C.; Kral, F.; Fry, M. (2015). Gridded Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) using gamma distribution with standard period 1961-2010 for Great Britain [SPIgamma61-10]. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. https://doi.org/10.5285/94c9eaa3-a178-4de4-8905-dbfab03b69a0 [3] Keller, V. D. J., Tanguy, M., Prosdocimi, I., Terry, J. A., Hitt, O., Cole, S. J., Fry, M., Morris, D. G., and Dixon, H.: CEH-GEAR: 1 km resolution daily and monthly areal rainfall estimates for the UK for hydrological use, Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., 8, 83-112, doi:10.5194/essdd-8-83-2015, 2015. [4] Tanguy, M.; Dixon, H.; Prosdocimi, I.; Morris, D. G.; Keller, V. D. J. (2014). Gridded estimates of daily and monthly areal rainfall for the United Kingdom (1890-2012) [CEH-GEAR]. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. https://doi.org/10.5285/5dc179dc-f692-49ba-9326-a6893a503f6e Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/1b228b42-42f8-4aee-b964-2c92a21d5556

  • 1km and 5km gridded Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) data for Great Britain, which is a drought index based on the probability of precipitation for a given accumulation period as defined by McKee et al. (1993). SPI is calculated for different accumulation periods: 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 months. Each of these is in turn calculated for each of the twelve calendar months. Note that values in monthly (and for longer accumulation periods also annual) time series of the data therefore are likely to be autocorrelated. The standard period which was used to fit the gamma distribution is 1961-2010. The dataset covers the period from 1961 to 2012. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/94c9eaa3-a178-4de4-8905-dbfab03b69a0

  • The WATCH forcing data (WFD) is a twentieth century meteorological forcing dataset for land surface and hydrological models. It consists of three/six-hourly states of the weather for global half-degree land grid points. It was generated as part of the EU FP 6 project "WATCH" (WATer and global CHange") which ran from 2007-2011. The data was generated in 2 tranches with slightly different methodology: 1901-1957 and 1958-2001, but generally the dataset can be considered as continuous. More details regarding the generation process can be found in the associated WATCH technical report and paper in J. Hydrometeorology. To understand how the data grid is formed it is necessary to read the attached WFD-land-long-lat-z files either in NetCDF or dat formats. The data covers land points only and excludes the Antarctica. Rainf or rainfall rate is the rainfall rate based on the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) bias corrected, undercatch corrected measured in kg/m2/s at 3 hourly resolution averaged over the next 3 hours and at 0.5 x 0.5 degrees spatial resolution. Please note that there is also a WFD Rainf CRU bias corrected dataset, but as the GPCC dataset is the preferred dataset only this rainfall dataset is available from the EIDC. These rainfall datasets contain rainfall data only and need to be combined with the respective WFD snowfall datasets to obtain precipitation data.