Human Health and Safety

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  • This dataset contains the answers gathered from the 806 participants who successfully finished an on-line survey on risk perception of environment-associated risks. The survey was launched on the 15th of February 2018 and ran for five days. The survey contained best worst scaling (BWS) to understand people's perceptions to certain risks. In this study sixteen risks were included in the BWS including four air-, food- and waterborne illnesses and twelve other hazards. The BWS was run in two blocks to consider two factors: first the respondents selected which risk they fear the most/least and in the second block they selected the risk they believed they had the most/least control. The survey also contained a detailed questionnaire on the participants eating habits and health status. Participants were also asked about their knowledge on enteric pathogens and whether they have ever sought or would consider seeking advice on the symptoms. Respondents were also asked whether they have experienced the hazards described in the BWS and whether they have done anything to reduce the risks in their life. The data were collected to gather information on people perceptions on environment-associated risks. This was done to understand the common knowledge on environment-associated pollutants and enlighten issues regarding risk management and mitigation. The data were collected as part of the VIRAQUA project was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) under the Environmental Microbiology and Human Health (EMHH) Programme (NE/M010996/1). Full details about this nonGeographicDataset can be found at

  • Data comprise radionuclide deposition, radioactivity dose measurements, radioactive particle activity and physical characteristic information from soil samples collected within and around the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) following the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. Data include radiocaesium, radiostrontium and soil chemistry parameters from soils collected in 1997, plutonium isotope measurements in soil samples and soil layers collected in 2000 and 2001, 'Hot particle' dataset presenting radionuclide activity and some physical characteristics of 'hot particles' extracted from soils collected in the Ukraine and Poland between 1995 and 1997; and Ivankov region data (radionuclide activity concentrations and natural background dose measurements) from a survey of the Ivankov region, immediately to the south of the CEZ conducted in 2014. Funding for preparing this data set was provided by the EU COMET project ( and TREE ( project funded by the NERC, Environment Agency and Radioactive Waste Management Ltd. under the RATE programme. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • These dataset files show the calibration of a sensor for mercury (II) ions using a Fluorimeter and either HgCl2 or HgNO3. A range of different sample conditions are tested, including sensor concentrations and relative proportions of water and a methanol co-solvent (required for solubility of the probe). Also tested was the ability of acid to affect the probes sensitivity to mercury as nitric acid is needed for the stability of HgNO3 as an analyte. File names listed show the concentration of sensor and the ratio of water to methanol tested. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) data are also given these are used to validate the sensors calibration and also to monitor the levels of soluble mercury content of dental amalgam samples held at either (11⁰C or 37⁰C) in water and saliva. The supernatant of these suspensions is filtered and measured using ICP-MS to give the data as reported. Full details about this nonGeographicDataset can be found at

  • This dataset contains pH, turbidity and viral concentration information in untreated and treated wastewater samples at wastewater discharge points and wastewater treatment plants along the Conwy River. The aim of the data collection was to investigate diurnal changes in enteric virus concentrations in wastewater and to investigate any correlation with wastewater pH and turbidity. Untreated wastewater samples were collected at one wastewater treatment plant for two events. Treated wastewater samples were collected at two wastewater discharge points for two and three sampling events, respectively. All the sampling took place between July 2016 and March 2017. During a sampling events, samples were collected every two hours for 72 hours using autosamplers. Samples were collected by trained members of staff from Bangor University and Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH). The data were collected as part of the VIRAQUA project was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) under the Environmental Microbiology and Human Health (EMHH) Programme (NE/M010996/1). Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • Concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and physichochemical data on wastewater samples collected from six sites across England and Wales between March and July 2020. Also included are the number of COVID-19 positive tests and COVID-19 related deaths for the same period collated from publicly available records. COVID-19 data relate to the lower tier local authority that the wastewater treatment plant was located within. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • Prediction of Caesium-137 (Cs-137) deposition from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The methodology uses a ratio of Cs-137 deposition and precipitation measured at Milford Haven by the Atomic Energy Authority extrapolated across Great Britain using a 5 by 5 km resolution UKCIP precipitation dataset. The prediction is for 31 December 1985. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset contains pH, turbidity, conductivity and viral concentration information in river and estuarine water, wastewater, sediment and mussel samples collected in the Conwy River and estuary. The aim of data collection was to monitor wastewater contamination in the freshwater-marine continuum. Samples were collected by trained members of staff from Bangor University at four weekly between March 2016 and August 2017. Treated and untreated wastewater samples were collected at four wastewater treatment plants along the Conwy River. Surface water samples were collected at four sites, sediments at three sites and mussels at two sites. The VIRAQUA project was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) under the Environmental Microbiology and Human Health (EMHH) Programme (NE/M010996/1) Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset consists of tick sampling and microclimate data from Exmoor, Richmond and New Forest study sites; as well as ARCGIS risk maps that model tick abundance driven by climate surfaces and host abundance. Tick sampling data (91 files, each representing a day of sampling) indicate tick abundance (distinguishing larvae, nymphs, adult males and adult females), vegetation height, soil moisture, temperature and relative humidity. Static risk map files indicate modeled tick abundance: 251 landcover files for the three sites, as well as 36 ArcView map files. The study is part of the NERC Rural Economy and Land Use (RELU) programme. Many people take pleasure from activities in forests and wild lands in the UK and others are being encouraged to participate. Unfortunately, there are risks and one of the most insidious is the possibility (albeit tiny) of acquiring a disease from wild animals; for example, ticks can be vectors of the bacterial infection leading to Lyme Disease. Both diagnosis and treatment can be problematic so prevention of acquiring such disease is highly desirable. Surprisingly little is known about how best to warn countryside users about the potential for disease without scaring them away or spoiling their enjoyment. Answering such questions was the goal of this project, and required the integration of a diverse set of scientific skills, and an understanding of the views of those who manage countryside, those who have contracted zoonotic diseases and those who access the land. This project combined knowledge from three strands of work, namely risk assessment, risk perception and communication, and scenario analysis. The study sites were selected to provide a range of environmental conditions and countryside use. Peri-urban parkland, accessible lowland forest and heath and remote upland forest were chosen as represented by Richmond Park on the fringe of Greater London, the New Forest in Southern England, and Exmoor in South West England. The following additional data from this same research project are available at the UK Data Archive under study number 6892 (see online resources): Lyme disease risk perception data resulting from tick imagery vignette experiments, Lyme disease patient interviews and surveys, residents and countryside staff focus groups, forest manager interviews, and multiple scoring procedures of animal social representation; as well as Lyme and tick risk communication data resulting from interviews with organisations and content analysis of risk warning information leaflets, Further documentation for this study may be found through the RELU Knowledge Portal and the project's ESRC funding award web page (see online resources).

  • These data show the presence/absence and identification of Cryptosporidium species from the results of a molecular survey of various upland river biota aquatic invertebrates, biofilms, mammal droppings and fish guts, gills and faeces. Samples were collected from various upland influenced sites from around Wales between 2012 and 2015 and were collected. Additionally, otter samples from UK-wide project were also tested. Sample collection was primarily undertaken by DURESS researchers at Cardiff University. Sample testing and analysis was performed at the Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales Microbiology, Swansea. DNA was extracted using a commercially available kit (Gentra PureGene), Qiagen stool and tissue DNA kits for the fish and mammal samples. These data were collected to provide new information required for the production of a catchment pathogen model to inform ecosystems (dis)services analysis of land use change scenarios for the Diversity in Upland Rivers for Ecosystem Service Sustainability (DURESS) project, part of the NERC Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (BESS) BESS Programme. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • Surveys of wellbeing, nature connectedness and pro-nature conservation behaviour scores from adult human participants before and after taking part in nature-based activities, including citizen science, in 2020 are presented. Participants were recruited via a public campaign and were randomly allocated into groups: citizen science, noticing nature (three good things in nature activity), combined citizen science and three good things in nature, and a wait list control. They were invited to take part in activities up to five times in the following eight days. Online surveys of wellbeing and nature connectedness were undertaken at people’s sign up to the project and after the eight days of activities. Demographic characteristics and people’s engagement with the project and responses to the pathways to nature connectedness were recorded after the eight days of activities. The research was carried out to investigate concern about the negative impacts of COVID-19 movement restrictions and social distancing on people's wellbeing and mental health. Research was funded through NERC grant NE/V009656/1 - COVID 19 - Does nature-based citizen science enhance well-being and mitigate negative effects of social isolation? Full details about this dataset can be found at