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  • Data consist of field spectral reflectance measurements and surface photographs of cyanobacterial soil crusts and other surficial materials in Diamantina National Park, Queensland. Data were collected as part of project NE/K011626/1 (associated with NE/K011464/1) Multiscale Impacts of Cyanobacterial Crusts on Landscape Stability. The reflectance data and associated surface photographs are of biological and physical soil crusts developed on claypan and sand dune surfaces alongside the Diamantina River (specifically on and around Lake Constance pan and Homestead pan. Data were collected and processed by Kevin White and Ian Davenport, using a Spectra Vista Hr1024i spectrometer with a spectralon reference panel. All data were processed using SVC Hr1024i PC Data acquisition software (version 1.6.7 Beta) to remove areas of spectral overlap. Photographs taken using a range of mobile device cameras. All field photographs are in JPEG (jpg) format. Data were collected for the purpose of assessing the ability to remotely sense presence/absence of cyanobacterial soil crusts for mapping purposes. Data are organised into a directory structure based on specific field experiments, each with its own directory structure. Dataset 1: Calcrete Reflectance Spectra, Diamantina National Park. Calcrete exposures are common in Diamantina National Park, forming flat-topped hills known locally as 'Jump-Ups'. Calcretes creat false positives with the commonly used biological soil crust indices from remote sensing data, so field spectra of calcretes were collected to characterise their spectral reflectance to assist with image processing. Dataset 2: Lake Constance Pan Mapping project Field Photographs, Reflectance Spectra and field notes, Lake Constance Clay Pan, Diamantina National Park. This dataset is a repeat survey undertaken in 2015, which revisited sample points first surveyed as part of the so-called 'MAM survey' in 2000. Dataset 3: Solar Radiation Photosynthesis experiment Field Photographs and Reflectance Spectra from three locations in Diamantina National Park, Lake Constance pan, a duneflank site on ‘Crusty Inlet dune’ (where no photosynthesis could be stimulated) and Homestead pan. The Homestead pan experiment was run twice (Winter 2015 and Summer 2016). Dataset 4: Shade netting experiment Spectral Reflectance measurements of a spectralon panel were taken under the shade netting to characterise the transmissivity of the netting at different solar elevation angles. Dataset 5: Photographic cards Spectral reflectance measurements of a set of photographic reference cards, which were included in the frame of all the surface photographs collected for this project. Dataset 6: Mobile Device experiment Field Photographs taken with a range of mobile device cameras (Moto G, Nexus 6 and Samsung Galaxy Note 10.1) and two cameras (Nikon Coolpix P610 and Nikon Coolpix 950 Full Spectrum), and associated reflectance spectra data, for 5 study sites Crusty Inlet Pan Surface, Crusty Inlet Dune North Flank, Lake Constance Pan and Homestead Dune. Dataset 7: Rainfall simulator Spectral reflectance data and associated field notes of sites used in a rainfall simulator/wind tunnel experiment, Lake Constance claypan (which formed part of the associated NERC project NE/K011464/1)

  • The DiGMap Plus dataset is a series of GIS layers describing the engineering, geochemical and geophysical properties of geological materials from the base of pedological soil down to c. 3m depth (ie the uppermost c.2m of geology). These deposits display a variable degree of weathering, but still exhibit core characteristics relating to their lithologies. The 'Resistivity' dataset covers England, Scotland and Wales and characterises the material resistivity (based on modelled distributions of clay and moisture content, to 2m depth.

  • The National Soil Parent Material dataset is a GIS describing the geological material from which topsoils and subsoils (A and B horizons) develop (i.e. from the base of pedological soil down to c. 3m). These deposits display a variable degree of weathering, but still exhibit core geological characteristics relating to their lithologies. The dataset covers England, Scotland and Wales and characterises parent material lithology, texture, mineralogy, strength and a range of other soil/parent related properties.

  • The data comprise of temperatures (degC) from a fibre optic distributed temperature sensor and soil moisture in the form of volumetric water content (VWC), expressed in m3/m3. The measurements were performed in a vegetated hillslope in Staffordshire, UK, in the context of the NERC funded project DiHPS: A Distributed Heat Pulse Sensor Network for subsurface heat and water fluxes. The site was equipped with: 15xVWC point probes (5TM, Decagon Devices) installed at 5 locations along the hillslope. At each location, 3x5TM probes were inserted in the soil at depths of 0.10m, 0.25m, 0.40m from the soil surface 1,512m of fibre optic cable for Active DTS measurements. The fibre was buried in the soil in three overlapped loops of 504m each at 0.10m, 0.25m, 0.40m. The measurements from the 5TM were used to infer a site specific empirical relation to obtain soil moisture from Active-DTS measurements, following the approach from Sayde et al., WRR, 2010 (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/241060722_Feasibility_of_soil_moisture_monitoring_with_heated_fiber_optics)

  • The data consist of soil physicochemical and biological data for three soil depths (0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm) from a three-cut silage plot trial located at three grassland sites within the UK collected between April 2016 and October 2016. The sites were Rothamsted Research at North Wyke in Devon, Bangor University at Henfaes Research Station in North Wales, and Easter Bush in Scotland. At each site measurements were taken from sixteen plots, organised within a randomised complete block design: four (control) plots did not receive fertilizer, four plots received urea only, four plots received urea and urea-inhibitors, and four plots received ammonium-nitrate (Nitram). Fertiliser was applied three times and three cuts were performed. All parameters were measured following fertiliser application. Samples were taken before fertilizer additions at peak growth and before the last silage cut. Soil physical parameters were: aggregate size distribution, aggregate stability, texture (sand/silt/clay) and soil moisture. Soil chemical parameters were: soil nitrate and ammonium, dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, amino acids and peptides, soil organic matter content as loss-on-ignition, pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, permanganate oxdisable carbon, citric acid extractable phosphorous, Olsen-P and total carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Soil biological measures were: microbial biomass, carbon and nitrogen. Microbial community composition and nitrogen genes were measured on the same soil samples and are presented in a separate dataset (https://doi.org/10.5285/59f81d41-a789-4c5c-8ab8-36baa7ac2c55) Measurements were undertaken by members of staff from the Centre of Ecology & Hydrology (Bangor, Edinburgh, Lancaster, Wallingford), Bangor University, School of Environment, Natural Resources & Geography and Rothamsted Research, Sustainable Agricultural Sciences, North Wyke. Data was collected for the Newton Fund project "UK-China Virtual Joint Centre for Improved Nitrogen Agronomy". Funded by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and NERC - Ref BB/N013468/1 Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/7a87dde4-b54e-49b0-8751-1d59e8aebb90

  • The data nitrogen gene data, soil biodiversity indices and microbial community composition, for three soil depths (0-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm) from a three-cut silage plot trial located at three grassland sites within the UK collected between April 2016 and October 2016. The sites were Rothamsted Research at North Wyke in Devon, Bangor University at Henfaes Research Station in North Wales and Easter Bush in Scotland. At each site measurements were taken from 16 plots, organised within a randomised complete block design where 4 plots did not receive fertilizers (controls), 4 plots received urea only, 4 plots received urea and urea-inhibitors, and 4 plots received ammonium-nitrate (Nitram). Fertiliser was applied three times and three cuts were performed, all parameters measured were following a fertiliser application. Samples were taken before the fertilizer additions, at peak growth and before the last silage cut. Soil chemical parameters were: soil nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, amino acids and peptides, soil organic matter content as loss-on-ignition, pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, permanganate oxdisable carbon citric acid extractable phosphorous, Olsen-P and total carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. Soil biological measure were: microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Soil physico-chemical parameters were measured on the same samples and are available in a related dataset measured on the same soil samples and are presented in a separate dataset in the project data series (https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/7a87dde4-b54e-49b0-8751-1d59e8aebb90). Measurements were undertaken by members of staff from the Centre of Ecology & Hydrology (Bangor, Edinburgh, Lancaster, Wallingford), Bangor University, School of Environment, Natural Resources & Geography and Rothamsted Research, Sustainable Agricultural Sciences, North Wyke. Data was collected for the Newton Fund project “UK-China Virtual Joint Centre for Improved Nitrogen Agronomy”. Funded by Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and NERC - Ref BB/N013468/1 Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/59f81d41-a789-4c5c-8ab8-36baa7ac2c55

  • This set of data describes resilience in microbial communities in samples taken at the Sourhope experimental site in 2001 by the Scottish Crop Research Institute, the University of Aberdeen and Cranfield University. Data were collected during a project funded under the NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme. The NERC Soil Biodiversity Thematic Programme was established in 1999 and was centred upon the intensive study of a large field experiment located at the Macaulay Land Use Research Institute (now the James Hutton Institute) farm at Sourhope in the Scottish Borders (Grid reference: NT8545019630). During the experiment, the site was monitored to assess changes in above-ground biomass production (productivity), species composition and relative abundance (diversity). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/7af2f732-f8a5-4a87-bcc0-dae54323efd0

  • This data set includes counts of soil meso-fauna collected from topsoil within a wide range of land use types across Wales, collected as part of the Glastir Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (GMEP). Meso-fauna include collembola (springtails) and acari (mites). The monitoring programme was set up by the Welsh Government in 2013 to monitor the effects of the Glastir agri-environment scheme on the environment and ran from 2013 to 2016. The field survey element was based on a stratified random sampling design of 300 x 1km square sites across Wales, and was managed by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/1c5cf317-2f03-4fef-b060-9eccbb4d9c21

  • This data set includes a range of physico-chemical properties measured from topsoil within a wide range of land use types across Wales, collected as part of the Glastir Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (GMEP). The properties included are: soil organic matter (loss on ignition (LOI)), derived carbon concentration, total soil organic carbon (SOC), nitrogen, total soil phosphorous, Olsen-phosphorous (within improved land only), pH, electrical conductivity, soil bulk density of fine earth, fine earth volumetric water content when sampled and soil water repellency - water drop penetration time. The monitoring programme was set up by the Welsh Government in 2013 to monitor the effects of the Glastir agri-environment scheme on the environment and ran from 2013 to 2016. The field survey element was based on a stratified random sampling design of 300 x 1km square sites across Wales, and was managed by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/0fa51dc6-1537-4ad6-9d06-e476c137ed09