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  • The dataset is provided to support the publication 'Diagnosing Observation Error Correlations for Doppler Radar Radial Winds in the Met Office UKV Model Using Observation-Minus-Background and Observation-Minus-Analysis Statistics' by Waller et al (2016). The dataset was created as part of the NERC Flooding from Intense Rainfall (FRANC) project in order to study the observation uncertainties associated with Doppler radar radial wind observations assimilated in to the Met Office UK variable resolution model. The dataset is processed output of the Met Office UKV 3D var assimilation scheme for June, July and August 2013 for four different experimental scenarios. Full details and equations are given in Waller et al (2016) but the four different experimental cases are summarised as follows: - Case 1: Control experiment using standard UKV settings in place in January 2014 - Case 2: As Case 1, but with a different background error covariance matrix used in the data assimilation - Case 3: As Case 1, but with raw Doppler radial wind observations rather than superobservations - Case 4: As Case 3, but with an improved observation operator. For each case the dataset consists of the radial wind observations assimilated at each assimilation cycle valid between 01/06/2013 and 31/08/2016 along with the associated observation-minus-background and observation-minus-analysis residuals. Each observation also has metadata that describes the location of the observation (both in latitude/longitude co-ordinates, and co-ordinates relative to the radar station) , the assimilation cycle at which it was assimilated and the observation error variance that the observation was assigned in the data assimilation scheme. These data are published under the Open Government License (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3/) © Crown Copyright, 2020, Met Office”.

  • This dataset contains voltage data taken from the Canadian Riometer Array (CRA). The provided tables and datasets can be used to determine if the voltage time series of CRA riometers have characteristic spectral features. In addition, datasets are provided which have been collected from the Solar Wind Electron Proton Monitor (SWEPAM) and Magnetic Field Experiment (MAG) instruments aboard the Atmospheric Composition Explorer (ACE).

  • This dataset contains atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) combined measurements made at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics land station (IAP-Beijing) site, during the summer and winter APHH-Beijing campaign for the Atmospheric Pollution & Human Health in a Chinese Megacity (APHH) programme. This combined dataset consists of a single mean time series of HONO mixing ratio (ppb), and associated min/max values determined from the datasets of 4 instruments that measured HONO at IAP at ground level. The data are averaged over 1 hour, the time stamp represents the start time of each averaging period. The instruments included in the combined dataset are the University of Birmingham commercial wet-chemical LOPAP instrument (Heland et al. 2001), Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences custom built wet-chemical instrument (Tong et al. 2016), and two custom built Broadband Cavity Enhanced Spectrophotmeters (BBCEAS) from the University of Cambridge (Kennedy et al. 2011) and Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (Duan et al. 2018).

  • This dataset contains concentrations of methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide measured using an Ecotech Spectronus FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometer. The instrument operated from 7 August 2014 to 15 August 2014 on a landfill site near Great Blakenham, Suffolk. The measurement site was located at 52.112N, 1.082E, and the inlet was located 2m above the ground. This data was collected as part of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project. The GAUGE project aimed to determine the magnitude, spatial distribution and uncertainties of the UK's Greenhouse Gas budget using new and existing measurement networks and modelling approaches at a range of scales.

  • The UK soil temperature data contain daily and hourly values of soil temperatures at depths of 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 centimetres. The measurements were recorded by observation stations operated by the Met Office across the UK and transmitted within NCM or DLY3208 messages. The data spans from 1900 to 2020. This version supersedes the previous version of this dataset and a change log is available in the archive, and in the linked documentation for this record, detailing the differences between this version and the previous version. The change logs detail new, replaced and removed data. At many stations temperatures below the surface are measured at various depths. The depths used today are 5, 10, 20, 30 and 100cm, although measurements are not necessarily made at all these depths at a station and exceptionally measurements may be made at other depths. When imperial units were in general use, typically before 1961, the normal depths of measurement were 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 inches. Liquid-in-glass soil thermometers at a depth of 20 cm or less are unsheathed and have a bend in the stem between the bulb and the lowest graduation. At greater depths the thermometer is suspended in a steel tube and has its bulb encased in wax. This dataset is part of the Midas-open dataset collection made available by the Met Office under the UK Open Government Licence, containing only UK mainland land surface observations owned or operated by the Met Office. It is a subset of the fuller, restricted Met Office Integrated Data Archive System (MIDAS) Land and Marine Surface Stations dataset, also available through the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis - see the related dataset section on this record.

  • The UK soil temperature data contain daily and hourly values of soil temperatures at depths of 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 centimetres. The measurements were recorded by observation stations operated by the Met Office across the UK and transmitted within NCM or DLY3208 messages. The data spans from 1900 to 2018. This version supersedes the previous version of this dataset and a change log is available in the archive, and in the linked documentation for this record, detailing the differences between this version and the previous version. The change logs detail new, replaced and removed data. At many stations temperatures below the surface are measured at various depths. The depths used today are 5, 10, 20, 30 and 100cm, although measurements are not necessarily made at all these depths at a station and exceptionally measurements may be made at other depths. When imperial units were in general use, typically before 1961, the normal depths of measurement were 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 inches. Liquid-in-glass soil thermometers at a depth of 20 cm or less are unsheathed and have a bend in the stem between the bulb and the lowest graduation. At greater depths the thermometer is suspended in a steel tube and has its bulb encased in wax. This dataset is part of the Midas-open dataset collection made available by the Met Office under the UK Open Government Licence, containing only UK mainland land surface observations owned or operated by the Met Office. It is a subset of the fuller, restricted Met Office Integrated Data Archive System (MIDAS) Land and Marine Surface Stations dataset, also available through the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis - see the related dataset section on this record.

  • This dataset contains tracks generated using a bespoke tracking algorithm developed within the BITMAP (Better understanding of Interregional Teleconnections for prediction in the Monsoon And Poles) project, identifying and linking upper-tropospheric vortices (described in Hunt et al, 2018, QJRMS - see linked documentation). This utilised data derived from from various simulation output for the WCRP Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) 'RCP85' experiment. Similar datasets were produced using various model output from the WRCP CMIP5 'Historical' and 'RCP45' experiments and the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis model output, also available within the parent dataset collection. Western disturbances (WDs) are upper-level vortices that can significantly impact the weather over Pakistan and north India. This is a catalogue of the tracks of WDs passing through the region (specifically 20-36.5N, 60-80E) on the 500 hPa layer. This differs from those tracks from the ECMWF Era-Interim data which were carried out on the 450-300 hPa layer. See linked documentation for details of the algorithms used. BITMAP was an Indo-UK-German project (NERC grant award NE/P006795/1) to develop better understanding of processes linking the Arctic and Asian monsoon, leading to better prospects for prediction on short, seasonal and decadal scales in both regions. Recent work had suggested that the pole-to-equator temperature difference is an essential ingredient driving variations in the monsoon. For further details on the project itself see the linked Project record.

  • The UK daily weather observation data contain meteorological values measured on a 24 hour time scale. The measurements of sunshine duration, concrete state, snow depth, fresh snow depth, and days of snow, hail, thunder and gail were attained by observation stations operated by the Met Office across the UK operated and transmitted within DLY3208, NCM, AWSDLY and SYNOP messages. The data span from 1889 to 2017. For details of observations see the relevant sections of the MIDAS User Guide linked from this record for the various message types. This dataset is part of the Midas-open dataset collection made available by the Met Office under the UK Open Government Licence, containing only UK mainland land surface observations owned or operated by Met Office. It is a subset of the fuller, restricted Met Office Integrated Data Archive System (MIDAS) Land and Marine Surface Stations dataset, also available through the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis - see the related dataset section on this record. Currently this represents approximately 95% of available daily weather observations within the full MIDAS collection.

  • The UK hourly solar radiation data contain the amount of solar irradiance received during the hour ending at the specified time. All sites report 'global' radiation amounts. This is also known as 'total sky radiation' as it includes both direct solar irradiance and 'diffuse' irradiance as a result of light scattering. Some sites also provide separate diffuse and direct irradiation amounts, depending on the instrumentation at the site. For these the sun's path is tracked with two pyrometers - one where the path to the sun is blocked by a suitable disc to allow the scattered sunlight to be measured to give the diffuse measurement, while the other has a tube pointing at the sun to measure direct solar irradiance whilst blanking out scattered sun light. This version supersedes the previous version of this dataset and a change log is available in the archive, and in the linked documentation for this record, detailing the differences between this version and the previous version. The change logs detail new, replaced and removed data. The data were collected by observation stations operated by the Met Office across the UK and transmitted within the following message types: SYNOP, HCM, AWSHRLY, MODLERAD, ESAWRADT and DRADR35 messages. The data spans from 1947 to 2018. This dataset is part of the Midas-open dataset collection made available by the Met Office under the UK Open Government Licence, containing only UK mainland land surface observations owned or operated by the Met Office. It is a subset of the fuller, restricted Met Office Integrated Data Archive System (MIDAS) Land and Marine Surface Stations dataset, also available through the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis - see the related dataset section on this record.

  • This dataset contains both the concentration of PM2.5 in ambient air sampled at a height of 8 metres and the concentrations of water-soluble Silicon/water-soluble organic Silicon/water-soluble inorganic Silicon found in the PM2.5 samples resulting from analysis by Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry. The PM2.5 samples were collected in the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China in August 2018 and January 2019. The data was collected to support the study of atmospheric chemistry and processes involving Silicon (Si) containing fine particles, which potentially contribute to atmospheric pollution. These data were collected as part of the Silicon-containing secondary organic aerosols in ambient air (Si-SOA) Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) funded project.