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  • The UK hourly rainfall data contain the rainfall amount (and duration from tilting syphon gauges) during the hour (or hours) ending at the specified time. The data also contains precipitation amounts, however precipitation measured over 24 hours are not stored. Over time a range of rain gauges have been used - see the linked MIDAS User Guide for further details. This version supersedes the previous version of this dataset and a change log is available in the archive, and in the linked documentation for this record, detailing the differences between this version and the previous version. The change logs detail new, replaced and removed data. The data were collected by observation stations operated by the Met Office across the UK and transmitted within the following message types: NCM, AWSHRLY, DLY3208, SREW and SSER. The data spans from 1915 to 2019. This dataset is part of the Midas-open dataset collection made available by the Met Office under the UK Open Government Licence, containing only UK mainland land surface observations owned or operated by the Met Office. It is a subset of the fuller, restricted Met Office Integrated Data Archive System (MIDAS) Land and Marine Surface Stations dataset, also available through the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis - see the related dataset section on this record. A large proportion of the UK raingauge observing network (associated with WAHRAIN, WADRAIN and WAMRAIN for hourly, daily and monthly rainfall measurements respectively) is operated by other agencies beyond the Met Office, and are consequently currently excluded from the Midas-open dataset.

  • The UK hourly weather observation data contain meteorological values measured on an hourly time scale. The measurements of the concrete state, wind speed and direction, cloud type and amount, visibility, and temperature were recorded by observation stations operated by the Met Office across the UK and transmitted within SYNOP, DLY3208, AWSHRLY and NCM messages. The sunshine duration measurements were transmitted in the HSUN3445 message. The data spans from 1875 to 2018. This version supersedes the previous version of this dataset and a change log is available in the archive, and in the linked documentation for this record, detailing the differences between this version and the previous version. The change logs detail new, replaced and removed data. For details on observing practice see the message type information in the MIDAS User Guide linked from this record and relevant sections for parameter types. This dataset is part of the Midas-open dataset collection made available by the Met Office under the UK Open Government Licence, containing only UK mainland land surface observations owned or operated by Met Office. It is a subset of the fuller, restricted Met Office Integrated Data Archive System (MIDAS) Land and Marine Surface Stations dataset, also available through the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis - see the related dataset section on this record. Note, METAR message types are not included in the Open version of this dataset. Those data may be accessed via the full MIDAS hourly weather data.

  • This dataset contains tracks generated using a bespoke tracking algorithm developed within the BITMAP (Better understanding of Interregional Teleconnections for prediction in the Monsoon And Poles) project, identifying and linking upper-tropospheric vortices (described in Hunt et al, 2018, QJRMS - see linked documentation). This utilised data derived from from various simulation output for the WCRP Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) 'RCP45' experiment. Similar datasets were produced using various model output from the WRCP CMIP5 'Historical' and 'RCP85' experiments and the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis model output, also available within the parent dataset collection. Western disturbances (WDs) are upper-level vortices that can significantly impact the weather over Pakistan and north India. This is a catalogue of the tracks of WDs passing through the region (specifically 20-36.5N, 60-80E) on the 500 hPa layer. This differs from those tracks from the ECMWF Era-Interim data which were carried out on the 450-300 hPa layer. See linked documentation for details of the algorithms used. BITMAP was an Indo-UK-German project (NERC grant award NE/P006795/1) to develop better understanding of processes linking the Arctic and Asian monsoon, leading to better prospects for prediction on short, seasonal and decadal scales in both regions. Recent work had suggested that the pole-to-equator temperature difference is an essential ingredient driving variations in the monsoon. For further details on the project itself see the linked Project record.

  • The UK hourly weather observation data contain meteorological values measured on an hourly time scale. The measurements of the concrete state, wind speed and direction, cloud type and amount, visibility, and temperature were recorded by observation stations operated by the Met Office across the UK and transmitted within SYNOP, DLY3208, AWSHRLY and NCM messages. The sunshine duration measurements were transmitted in the HSUN3445 message. The data spans from 1875 to 2020. This version supersedes the previous version of this dataset and a change log is available in the archive, and in the linked documentation for this record, detailing the differences between this version and the previous version. The change logs detail new, replaced and removed data. Of particular note, however, is that as well as including data for 2020, historical data recovery has added further data for Eskdalemuir (1914-1944) and Eastbourne (1887-1910). For details on observing practice see the message type information in the MIDAS User Guide linked from this record and relevant sections for parameter types. This dataset is part of the Midas-open dataset collection made available by the Met Office under the UK Open Government Licence, containing only UK mainland land surface observations owned or operated by Met Office. It is a subset of the fuller, restricted Met Office Integrated Data Archive System (MIDAS) Land and Marine Surface Stations dataset, also available through the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis - see the related dataset section on this record. Note, METAR message types are not included in the Open version of this dataset. Those data may be accessed via the full MIDAS hourly weather data.

  • This dataset contains Global gas flaring activity from the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) (1991-2012) and Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) (2017-2018) sensors. The data records have been processed to identify persistent thermal anomalies with spectral characteristics consistent with the combustion of natural gas during industrial gas flaring activities. Two different datasets are produced globally for each sensor type, one recording the activity and the other the sampling of these assumed gas flaring sites. The activity dataset records whenever a flare is up, i.e. is actively combusting, and provides a characterisation of the flares behaviour in terms of radiant heat output (in W). The determination of radiant heat output is achieved using the single channel SWIR radiance method of Fisher and Wooster (2018), based on the MWIR radiance method used extensively in the analysis of biomass burning. The sampling dataset records whenever a flaring site is seen by the satellite (irrespective of whether it is up or not) and also provides information on typical levels of cloud cover in the vicinity of the flare. The activity dataset contains information on the point location of the flare (accurate to within approximately ±1km) in the form of a lat/lon coordinate. Also provided is an index lookup that can be used to simply aggregate the flaring activity into arc-minute bins and these are referred to as lat_arcmin and lon_arcmin in the dataset. The sampling dataset is provided at the spatial level of the arc-minute binning only, and when merged onto the activity dataset long-term assessment of a flaring site can be performed. Such estimates of flaring activity over extended time periods for a given flaring site can be made by calculating the flare up-time (times seen actively flaring over time period or the expected number of cloud free overpasses for time period) and the mean radiant heat output of the flare for the same time period. The product of time period (in seconds), the estimated flare up-time and the mean radiant heat output provides an estimate of typical flare activity.

  • This dataset contains both the concentration of PM2.5 in ambient air sampled at a height of 8 metres and the concentration of specific ions found in the PM2.5 samples resulting from the analysis by Ion Chromatography. The PM2.5 samples were collected in the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China in August 2018 and January 2019. The data was collected to support the study of atmospheric chemistry and processes involving Silicon (Si) containing fine particles, which potentially contribute to atmospheric pollution. These data were collected as part of the Silicon-containing secondary organic aerosols in ambient air (Si-SOA) Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) funded project.

  • Data for Figure 3.10 from Chapter 3 of the Working Group I (WGI) Contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Report (AR6). Figure 3.10 shows observed and simulated tropical mean temperature trends through the atmosphere. --------------------------------------------------- How to cite this dataset --------------------------------------------------- When citing this dataset, please include both the data citation below (under 'Citable as') and the following citation for the report component from which the figure originates: Eyring, V., N.P. Gillett, K.M. Achuta Rao, R. Barimalala, M. Barreiro Parrillo, N. Bellouin, C. Cassou, P.J. Durack, Y. Kosaka, S. McGregor, S. Min, O. Morgenstern, and Y. Sun, 2021: Human Influence on the Climate System. In Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, A. Pirani, S.L. Connors, C. Péan, S. Berger, N. Caud, Y. Chen, L. Goldfarb, M.I. Gomis, M. Huang, K. Leitzell, E. Lonnoy, J.B.R. Matthews, T.K. Maycock, T. Waterfield, O. Yelekçi, R. Yu, and B. Zhou (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 423–552, doi:10.1017/9781009157896.005. --------------------------------------------------- Figure subpanels --------------------------------------------------- The figure has three panels, with data provided for all panels in subdirectories named panel_a, panel_b and panel_c. --------------------------------------------------- List of data provided --------------------------------------------------- Temperature trend from radiosonde, reanalysis and CMIP6 data, including their uncertainty where available. CMIP6 is the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. --------------------------------------------------- Data provided in relation to figure --------------------------------------------------- - panel_a/ipcc_ar6_chap3_fig_3_10_panel_a_with_metadata.csv - panel_b/ipcc_ar6_chap3_fig_3_10_panel_b_with_metadata.csv - panel_c/ipcc_ar6_chap3_fig_3_10_panel_c_with_metadata.csv Details of data provided in relation to each figure panel and its elements are described in the metadata associated with each file. --------------------------------------------------- Sources of additional information --------------------------------------------------- The following weblinks are provided in the Related Documents section of this catalogue record: - Link to the report component containing the figure (Chapter 3) - Link to the Supplementary Material for Chapter 3, which contains details on the input data used in Table 3.SM.1 - Link to the code for the figure, archived on Zenodo.

  • The UK hourly rainfall data contain the rainfall amount (and duration from tilting syphon gauges) during the hour (or hours) ending at the specified time. The data also contains precipitation amounts, however precipitation measured over 24 hours are not stored. Over time a range of rain gauges have been used - see the linked MIDAS User Guide for further details. This version supersedes the previous version of this dataset and a change log is available in the archive, and in the linked documentation for this record, detailing the differences between this version and the previous version. The change logs detail new, replaced and removed data. The data were collected by observation stations operated by the Met Office across the UK and transmitted within the following message types: NCM, AWSHRLY, DLY3208, SREW and SSER. The data spans from 1915 to 2020. This dataset is part of the Midas-open dataset collection made available by the Met Office under the UK Open Government Licence, containing only UK mainland land surface observations owned or operated by the Met Office. It is a subset of the fuller, restricted Met Office Integrated Data Archive System (MIDAS) Land and Marine Surface Stations dataset, also available through the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis - see the related dataset section on this record. A large proportion of the UK raingauge observing network (associated with WAHRAIN, WADRAIN and WAMRAIN for hourly, daily and monthly rainfall measurements respectively) is operated by other agencies beyond the Met Office, and are consequently currently excluded from the Midas-open dataset.

  • This dataset includes black carbon mass and number concentrations measurements performed by the University of Manchester with a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) made during the Pre- Monsoon and Post-Monsoon periods of the APHH Delhi campaigns in 2018 at Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women (IGDTUW) site. The data were collected as part of the DelhiFlux project part of Air Pollution & Human Health in a Developing Indian Megacity (APHH-India) programme.

  • The UK hourly weather observation data contain meteorological values measured on an hourly time scale. The measurements of the concrete state, wind speed and direction, cloud type and amount, visibility, and temperature were recorded by observation stations operated by the Met Office across the UK and transmitted within SYNOP, DLY3208, AWSHRLY and NCM messages. The sunshine duration measurements were transmitted in the HSUN3445 message. The data spans from 1875 to 2019. This version supersedes the previous version of this dataset and a change log is available in the archive, and in the linked documentation for this record, detailing the differences between this version and the previous version. The change logs detail new, replaced and removed data. Of particular note, however, is that as well as including data for 2019, historical data recovery has added temperature and weather data for Bude (1937-1958), Teignmouth (1912-1930), and Eskdalemuir (1915-1948). For details on observing practice see the message type information in the MIDAS User Guide linked from this record and relevant sections for parameter types. This dataset is part of the Midas-open dataset collection made available by the Met Office under the UK Open Government Licence, containing only UK mainland land surface observations owned or operated by Met Office. It is a subset of the fuller, restricted Met Office Integrated Data Archive System (MIDAS) Land and Marine Surface Stations dataset, also available through the Centre for Environmental Data Analysis - see the related dataset section on this record. Note, METAR message types are not included in the Open version of this dataset. Those data may be accessed via the full MIDAS hourly weather data.