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Scotland

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  • The dataset collates the relative concentration of nearly 300 antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes found in soil locations across Scotland. Soils were obtained from the National Soils Inventory of Scotland (NSIS2), from which the total community DNA were extracted and provided to assess AMR gene content. Sampling of the NSIS2 was conducted between 2007-2010 at 183 soil locations representing intersections of a 20km grid across all of Scotland. For each sample, nearly 300 AMR genes were assessed representing major antibiotic classes, and included many resistance traits: aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, FCA (fluoroquinolone, quinolone, chloramphenicol, florfenicol and amphenicol resistance genes), MLSB (macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin B), tetracycline, vancomycin, sulphonamide, efflux pumps and integron genes. The data represent relative gene abundance, i.e., the amount of genes per “total bacteria.” Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/d3498e93-4ac5-4eab-bc1a-eb2328771d24

  • These spatial layers contain risk factors and overall risk scores, representing relative risk of Phytophthora infection (Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae), for heathland fragments across Scotland. Risk factors include climate suitability, proximity to road and river networks and suitability of habitat for key hosts of Phytophthora and were broadly concurrent with the period between 2007 and 2013. This research was funded by the Scottish Government under research contract CR/2008/55, 'Study of the epidemiology of Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora kernoviae in managed gardens and heathlands in Scotland' and involved collaborators from St Andrews University, Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA), Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH), Forestry Commission, the Food and Environment Research Agency (FERA) and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/8f09b7e6-6daa-4823-b338-4edad8de1461

  • This dataset consists of change data for areas of Broad Habitats across Great Britain between 1998 and 2007. The data are national estimates generated by analysing the sample data from up to 591 1km squares and scaling up to a national level. The data are summarized as percentage increase or decrease in habitat area per Land Class (areas of similar environmental characteristics) and are in a vector format. The sample sites are chosen from a stratified random sample, based on a 15 by 15 km grid of GB and using the 'ITE Land Classification' as a method of stratification. The data were collected as part of Countryside Survey, a unique study or 'audit' of the natural resources of the UK's countryside. The Survey has been carried out at regular intervals since 1978 by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. The countryside is sampled and surveyed using rigorous scientific methods, allowing us to compare new results with those from previous surveys. In this way we can detect the gradual and subtle changes that occur in the UK's countryside over time. Surveys have been carried out in 1978, 1984, 1990, 1998 and 2007 with repeated visits to the majority of squares. In addition to habitat areas, vegetation species data, soil data, linear habitat data, and freshwater habitat data are also gathered by Countryside Survey. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/d83a0f9e-00c9-4d2d-9d0a-e92a16dcb334

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. This dataset provides the details of all sites which have been monitored as part of the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Data includes the location within the UK, the length and width of the line transect on each site, and how long the transect has been monitored. The UKBMS started in 1976 with fewer than 50 sites. The number of sites monitored each year has increased to over a thousand since 2008. There is turnover in sites monitored each year and details of the first and last year in which each site was surveyed are given. The majority of site data is provided by recorders at the time a transect is created. The majority of these recorders are volunteers. The Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) and Butterfly Conservation (BC) collate the data and the UKBMS is funded by a consortium of organisations led by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/814c6d77-1a16-4e94-bcf2-73823e3240fd

  • This dataset provides data on the timing of butterfly flight periods for each UK butterfly species across all monitored sites in the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Annual data from over 2,500 sites are presented relating to the timing (first appearance, last appearance, date of peak abundance and mean flight date) and the duration (total number of days, standard deviation around the mean flight date) of the flight period for all UK butterfly species from 1976 to the present year. In addition, this data is divided each year for eleven multi-voltine species to provide separate phenology data for distinct flight periods associated with first and subsequent generations. Phenology change is a widely used measure of the biological impacts of climate change because of the close relationship between temperature and the timing of biological events. This dataset provides an invaluable tool for assessing the impacts of climate change both spatially and temporally. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/4bc7bb9f-4a7a-46ff-aa63-2747e248fd1e

  • This dataset contains prey items of common guillemot Uria aalge and razorbill Alca torda observed during the 2018 breeding season at East Caithness Special Protection Area (SPA), Buchan Ness to Collieston Coast SPA and Isle of May National Nature Reserve, off the east coast of Scotland. Diet of these two species has been studied on the Isle of May since the 1980s (Harris & Wanless 1985, 1986; Wilson et al 2004; Daunt et al. 2008; Thaxter et al 2013). To our knowledge, only two previous studies of diet has been undertaken at Buchan Ness to Collieston Coast SPA (in 2006, 6km to the north of the site used in this study; Anderson et al. 2014; and in 2017, using a similar protocol as in 2018; Daunt et al. 2017), and one previous study of diet has been undertaken at East Caithness SPA (2017; Daunt et al. 2017). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/d7164910-17cb-44cd-bccd-6a9c31b6ed70

  • This dataset consists of a 25m resolution raster version of the Land Cover Map 2007 for Great Britain. Each 25m pixel represents a 25m area of land cover target class, broadly representing Broad Habitats (see below). The dataset is part of a series of data products produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology known as LCM2007. LCM2007 is a parcel-based thematic classification of satellite image data covering the entire United Kingdom. The map updates and upgrades the Land Cover Map of Great Britain (LCMGB) 1990 and LCM2000. Like the earlier 1990 and 2000 products, LCM2007 is derived from a computer classification of satellite scenes obtained mainly from Landsat, IRS and SPOT sensors and also incorporates information derived from other ancillary datasets. LCM2007 was classified using a nomenclature corresponding to the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) Broad Habitats, which encompasses the entire range of UK habitats. In addition, it recorded further detail where possible. The series of LCM2007 products includes vector and raster formats, with a number of different versions containing varying levels of detail and at different spatial resolutions. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/a1f88807-4826-44bc-994d-a902da5119c2

  • This dataset contains data on the spatial attendance patterns of immature common guillemots (Uria aalge) at four sites in a large breeding colony. Data were collected from 25th April-12th May and 21st May-15th June 2013 at four sites on the Isle of May, Scotland. A grid was superimposed onto a photograph of each site. Grid cells were then classified as breeding or pre-breeding areas according to the presence or absence of breeding activity at any point during data collection (i.e. an egg or chick). A total of 69 randomly selected and individually-marked birds were followed using a telescope for 10 minute periods and their location in these grids was recorded every 15 seconds. This work was part of a NERC-funded PhD project looking at interactions between avian colonial social structure and tick-borne pathogen dynamics. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/dbd72bb5-4ad5-4d2f-b546-1cea672f76e8

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. Site indices, as a relative measure of the actual population size, for UK butterfly species calculated from data from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Site indices are a relative rather than an absolute measure of the size of a population, and have been shown to relate closely to other, more intensive, measures of population size such as mark, release, recapture (MRR) methods. The site index can be thought of as a relative measure of the actual population size, being a more or less constant proportion of the number of butterflies present. The proportion seen is likely to vary according to species; some butterfly species are more conspicuous and thus more easily detected, whereas others are much less easy to see. Site indices are only calculated at sites with sufficient monitoring visits throughout the season, or for targeted reduced effort surveys (timed observations, larval web counts and egg counts) where counts are generally obtained as close to the peak of the flight period as possible and are subsequently adjusted for the time of year and size of the site (area of suitable habitat type for a given species). Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (WCBS) sites are thus excluded because they are based on very few visits from which accurate indices of abundance cannot currently be calculated. For transect sites a statistical model (a General Additive Model, 'GAM') is used to impute missing values and to calculate a site index. Each year most transect sites (over 90%) produce an index for at least one species and in recent years site indices are calculated for almost 1,500 sites across the UK. Site indices are subsequently collated to contribute to the overall 'Collated Index' for each species, which are relative measures of the abundance of each species across a geographical area, for example, across the whole UK or at country level in England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. Individual site indices are important in informing conservation management as not all sites show the same patterns for each species and likely reflect a combination of local climate and habitat management at the site. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/5c9c946d-34f8-4afb-83e3-f0cbc7123fec

  • This dataset consists of Particle Size Distribution (PSD) measurements made on 419 archived topsoil samples and derived aggregate stability metrics from arable and grassland habitats across Great Britain in 2007. Laser granulometry was used to measure PSD of 1–2 mm aggregates before and after sonication and the difference in their Mean Weight Diameter (MWD) used to indicate aggregate stability. The samples were collected as part of the Countryside Survey monitoring programme, a unique study or ‘audit’ of the natural resources of the UK’s countryside. The analyses were conducted as part of study aiming to quantify how soil quality indicators change across a gradient of agricultural land management and to identify conditions that determine the ability of different soils to resist and recover from perturbations. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/be3793b6-90fb-4e4c-9515-220cc33223b9