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  • The Icelandic Volcano, Eyjafjallajokull, started erupting on 14th April 2010. The volcanic ash cloud produced covered much of Northern Europe for several weeks causing extensive disruption to air travel. The UK and European atmospheric communities had many instruments - both airborne and ground-based, remote sensing and in-situ - taking measurements of the ash cloud throughout this period. This dataset contains a variety of satellite products including dust and sulphur dioxide (SO2) retrievals.

  • This dataset contains global retrieval of sulphur dioxide (SO2) column amounts and altitudes derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument on the METOP-A satellite. The data have been produced by the University of Oxford as part of the NERC Centre for the Observation and Modelling of Earthquakes, Volcanoes and Tectonics (COMET). This dataset has been produced using the Carboni et al. (2012,2016) retrieval algorithm for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer which retrieve column amount and altitude (together with a comprehensive error budget for every pixel) using simultaneously all the IASI channels between 1000–1200 and 1300–1410 cm−1. It has a global coverage and includes the six-month-long Holuhraun eruption, from September 2014 to February 2015, together with other events during the same periods such as: volcanic activity on the Kamchatka peninsula, Etna and Capo verde eruptions, anthropogenic SO2 emissions from China. The data presents the results of the retrieval for every IASI 'plume' pixels (e.g. that result positive to the IASI SO2 detection) including: column amount (in Dobson Unit - DU), altitude (in millibar and successively converted in km using meteorological profile), surface temperature. It also includes quality control parameters and quality flags: for generic use we recommend using data with flag = 1. Quality control parameters available are: degree of freedom, cost function, convergence. These quality control paramenters are also summarized in two 'stricted' and 'relaxed' quality control flags. This dataset also includes location of all IASI pixels in the same orbit (non plume pixel) to allow regridding and comparison with other instruments and models.

  • This dataset contains global monthly averaged effective sulphur dioxide (SO2) column amounts derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument on the METOP-A satellite. The data have been produced by the University of Oxford as part of the NERC Centre for the Observation and Modelling of Earthquakes, Volcanoes and Tectonics (COMET). This dataset has been produced using the Walker et al. (2011, 2012) linear retrieval developed for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, which is able to detect sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas. This dataset contains monthly averages of this retrieval output from June 2007 to December 2014 across the globe, within which it is possible to identify the period and the location of when we have an anomaly of SO2 in atmosphere. This includes volcanic eruptions alongside non-eruptive volcanic degassing, and human pollution sources. Within the dataset are the average effective SO2 column amounts in Dobson Units (DU) for 0.125º by 0.125º gridboxes across the globe. Also included for each grid box are the standard deviation, and the number of pixel boxes contributing to the mean. The results from this dataset are discussed in Taylor et al. (2018) 'Exploring the utility of IASI for monitoring volcanic SO2 emissions' in review at JGR: Atmospheres.

  • This dataset is associated with the VolcanEESM project led by the project team at the University of Leeds. The project was funded by NCAR/UCAR Atmospheric Chemistry and Modeling Visiting Scientist Program, NCAS, University of Leeds. The global volcanic sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions database is a combination of available information from the wider literature with as many observations of the amount and location of SO2 emitted by each volcanic eruption as possible. The database includes no information about the size, mass, distribution or optical depth of resulting aerosol. As such the database is model agnostic and it is up to each modeling group to make decisions about how to implement the emission file in their prognostic stratospheric aerosol scheme. The dataset is divided into two parts based on the availability of satellite data. For the pre-satellite era, the necessary information about the emissions was gathered from the latest ice core records of sulphate deposition in combination historical accounts available in the wider literature (see references included in the database for specific citation for each record). In the satellite era, volcanic emissions were primarily derived from remotely sensed observations. For the period 1850 CE to 1979 the dataset combined the most recent volcanic sulfate deposition datasets from ice cores with volcanological and, where applicable, petrological estimates of the SO2 mass emitted as well as historical records of large-magnitude volcanic eruptions. In detail, for the majority of eruptions between 1850 CE to 1979 , there are few direct measurement of SO2 emissions or quantitative observations of the plume height and very few measurements of the aerosol optical depth (AOD). Parameters in the database include: Day_of_Emission: The 24 hour period in which the emission is thought to have occurred. (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.) Eruption: Field that contains the Volcano_Number (Which uniquely identifies each volcano in the Global Volcanism Program Database), Volcano_Name (official name from the Global Volcanism Program Database), Notes_and_References (list of notes about the observed parameters and references used to derive each entry). ( Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.) Latitude: Latitude of each emission from -90 to +90 (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.) Longitude: Longitude of each emission degrees East (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.) VEI: Volcanic Explosively Index of each emission based on Global Volcanism Program Database (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.) Total_Emission_of_SO2_Tg: Total emission of SO2 in teragram for the specific database entry (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.) Maximum_Injection_Height_km: Maximum height of each emission in kilometers above sea level. (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.) Minimum_Injection_Height_km: Minimum height of each emission in kilometers above sea level. (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.) Month_of_Emission: The month in which the emission is thought to have occurred. (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.) Year_of_Emission: The Year in which the emission is thought to have occurred. (Ordered by the variable Eruption_Number starting with the first eruption in the database.)

  • This dataset contains O3, CO, NO, NO2, NOy and SO2 concentration measurements from the University of York's Thermo 49i O3 analyser, Aero Laser 5002 CO analyser, Air Quality Design (AQD) NOx analyser, Thermo 42c Trace Level NOx analyser with AQD NOy converter and a Thermo 43i SO2 analyser. These instruments were located at the Indira Gandi Delhi Technical University for Women (IGDTUW). The instruments sampled from a common sample line, initially at 7 m above ground level, then were moved to 35 m above ground on the 5th of November 2018. The data were collected as part of the DelhiFlux project part of Air Pollution & Human Health in a Developing Indian Megacity (APHH-India) programme.

  • The VolcanEESM database was a combination of all global volcanic emissions of SO2 (amount and location) collated from the available literature. Currently, the database is available for the period 1850-2015, but this is expected to be updated yearly with additional information. The database includes no information about the size, mass, distribution or optical depth of resulting aerosol. As such the database is model agnostic and it is up to each modeling group to make decisions about how to implement the emission file in their prognostic stratospheric aerosol scheme. Revisions to databases, such as VolcanEESM, are part of the scientific process. Thus, the database is freely available for others to use and report back any errors or comments they may have to the database's curators.

  • This dataset is a model output from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) model applied to the UK (EMEP4UK) driven by Weather and Research Forecast model meteorology (WRF). It provides UK estimates daily averaged atmospheric composition at approximately 5 km grid for the years 2001 to 2015. The data consists of atmospheric composition and deposition values of various pollutants; including PM10, PM2.5, secondary organic aerosols (SOA), elemental carbon (EC), secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOX) , and ozone (O3). The EMEP model version used here is rv4.17 and the WRF model version is the 3.7.1. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/b0545f67-e47c-4077-bf3c-c5ffcd6b72c8