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University of Liverpool Department of Earth, Ocean and Ecological Sciences

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  • This datasets contains a box model of the atmosphere‐ocean to understand surface warming response and explain how surface warming varies in time with carbon emissions. The box model consists of three homogeneous layers: a well‐mixed atmosphere, an ocean mixed layer with 100‐m thickness, and an ocean interior with 3,900‐m thickness, all assumed to have the same horizontal area. The model solves for the heat and carbon exchange between these layers, including physical and chemical transfers, but ignoring biological transfers, and sediment and weathering interactions. The model is forced from an equilibrium by carbon emitted into the atmosphere with a constant rate of 20 PgC/year for 100 years and integrated for 1,000 years. Ocean ventilation is represented by the ocean interior taking up the heat and carbon properties of the mixed layer on an e-folding time scale of 200 years. The model was generated as part of Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Discovery Science project “Mechanistic controls of surface warming by ocean heat and carbon uptake” standard grant reference NE/N009789/1 lead by Principal Investigator Professor Ric Williams.Model code and associated metadata are held in the archives at the British Oceanographic Data Centre. Other datasets generated by this grant are discoverable via EDMED 6712.

  • This dataset contains fractional change in volumetric rates of alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) over time determined from near surface samples and APA rates determined during incubation experiments using zooplankton collected from the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Samples used in the final analyses were collected on-board the RRS James Clark Ross cruise JR15007 (June to July 2016), RRS James Cook cruise JC150 (June to August 2017) and a previously published dataset from Dr Oliver Wurl using samples collected on-board Research Vessel Knorr 199-5, a US GEOTRACES cruise. The final analyses of the data and samples collected on-board cruise JC150 were funded as part of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) standard grant ‘Zinc, iron and phosphorus co-limitation in the Ocean (ZIPLOc)’ reference NE/N001079/1 lead by Principal Investigator Dr Claire Mahaffey and Co-Investigator Dr Clare Davis. The key aims were to assess if there was diurnal variability in APA, if zooplankton influenced APA in the surface ocean and quantified the diurnal variability in APA and the role of zooplankton in the surface ocean phosphate cycling to allow assessment that is more accurate and detection of future changes in ocean phosphate dynamics. Additional samples collected on cruise JR15007 were funded by NERC Grant NE/L004216/1 ‘A nutrient and carbon pump over mid-ocean ridges (RidgeMix) lead by Principal Investigator Professor Jonathan Sharples. The third party dataset provided by Dr Oliver Wurl were funded by the US National Science Foundation, Division of Ocean Sciences (Grants OCE 0929573 and OCE 0926092 to Professor G.Cutter).

  • This dataset contains derived annual mean globally averaged variables from an existing global coupled carbon-climate Earth System Model and a novel atmosphere-ocean box model to understand surface warming response in terms of changes in global carbon inventories, empirical heat budget, and variation in time with carbon emissions. The source model outputs were generated by Thomas Froelicher in 2015 using a 1000-year simulation of the global coupled carbon-climate Earth System Model developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL ESM2M). A scenario was forced of a 1% annual rate increase in carbon dioxide from preindustrial levels until global mean surface air temperature increased by 2 degrees Celsius since the preindustrial, after this point emissions of carbon were set to zero and all other non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gases were kept at preindustrial levels. Output parameters included: ocean temperature; salinity; dissolved inorganic carbon; ocean alkalinity; dissolved inorganic phosphate; surface air temperature; atmospheric carbon dioxide and cumulative carbon emission. Annual mean variables were then derived from these data. This was determined by calculated changes in: ocean carbon inventory; ocean carbon under saturation; saturated dissolved inorganic carbon; ocean dissolved inorganic carbon; radiative forcing from carbon dioxide; and ocean heat uptake. Additionally the dependence of radiative forcing on carbon emissions, dependence of surface warming on radiative forcing and surface warming dependence on radiative forcing were determined. The box model consists of three homogeneous layers: a well‐mixed atmosphere; an ocean mixed layer with 100‐m thickness; and an ocean interior with 3,900‐m thickness, all assumed to have the same horizontal area. The model solves for the heat and carbon exchange between these layers, including physical and chemical transfers, however ignoring biological transfers, and sediment and weathering interactions. The model is forced from an equilibrium by carbon emitted into the atmosphere with a constant rate of 20 PgC/year for 100 years and integrated for 1,000 years. Ocean ventilation is represented by the ocean interior taking up the heat and carbon properties of the mixed layer on an e-folding time scale of 200 years. These datasets were generated as part of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Discovery Science project “Mechanistic controls of surface warming by ocean heat and carbon uptake” standard grant reference NE/N009789/1 lead by Principal Investigator - Professor Ric Williams, University of Liverpool and Co-Investigator - Dr Philip Goodwin, University of Southampton. Data are acrvhived at the British Oceanographic Data Centre.

  • The dataset comprises hydrographic profiles (temperature, salinity, oxygen, fluorometer, transmissometer, irradiance) and along track measurements (bathymetry, surface meteorology, sea surface hydrography), with discrete measurements including water chemistry (organic and inorganic nutrients, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, dissolved gases, trace metals), biology (phytoplankton, zooplankton, primary production, community respiration, chlorophyll, pigments) and atmospheric particulates (major ions, organics and trace metals). Data have been collected from meridional transects of the Atlantic Ocean (between the UK and the Falkland Islands, South Africa or South America) from 1995 to the present day. The Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) programme aims to study the factors determining the ecological and biogeochemical variability of planktonic ecosystems in the tropical and temperate Atlantic Ocean, and their links to atmospheric processes. The majority of the data are available to academia for re-use and re-purpose but data from recent cruises may be subject to a moratorium which allows first use for data originators. The AMT is coordinated by Andy Rees (AMT Principal Investigator) and Miss Dawn Ashby (AMT Project Officer) at the Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) in conjunction with the National Oceanography Centre. Since its inception the programme has involved researchers from several different countries and has acted as a platform for national and international collaboration. Data are managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre.

  • The COMICS (Controls over Ocean Mesopelagic Interior Carbon Storage) project consists of observations, at sea, of particle flux and stable isotopes. It applies organic geochemical and molecular biological techniques to samples collected using nets and traps. The study areas are the tropical Atlantic and Southern Oceans. The results will be combined with models to quantify the flow of carbon in the ocean’s ‘twilight’ zone in order to accurately model global climate change. This ‘twilight’ zone is the part of the ocean between 100m and 1000m below the sea surface, where only a small amount of light from the sun can still penetrate. By investigating carbon dynamics in the ocean interior, COMICS will help to improve predictions of future global climate change. The COMICS project is led by the National Oceanography Centre and is a collaboration between the British Antarctic Survey and the universities of Queen Mary London, Liverpool, Oxford and Southampton. The project received funding from the Natural Environmental Research Council and runs between 2017 and 2021.

  • The Shelf Sea Biogeochemistry (SSB) data set comprises hydrographic data, including measurements of temperature, salinity and currents, complemented by bathymetric and meteorological data. The study area is located in the Celtic Sea, shelf seas and shelf-edges around the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. The data were collected by a combination of research cruises that spanned from March 2014 to September 2015. Shipboard data collection involved the deployment of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) packages in the study area. Continuous measurements of current velocities (using vessel mounted ADCPs, VMADCPs), bathymetry and surface ocean and meteorological properties were collected throughout each cruise. Moorings were deployed in the Celtic Sea in early 2014 and provided approximately two years worth of hydrographic time series data. The SSB programme aims to increase the understanding of the cycling of nutrients and carbon and the controls on primary and secondary production, and their role in wider biogeochemical cycles, which in turn will significantly improve predictive marine biogeochemical and ecosystem models over a range of scales. SSB brings together UK researchers from Bangor University, Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Meteorological Office, National Oceanography Centre (NOC), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML), Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS), University of Aberdeen, University of East Anglia (UEA), University of Edinburgh, University of Liverpool, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth and University of Southampton. It also has UK and Irish partners, as Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI), Marine Institute and Marine Scotland Science. The programme was divided into five work packages, having Jonathan Sharples as the Principal Investigator for work package 1 (CANDYFLOSS), Martin Solan as Principal Investigator for work package 2 (Biogeochemistry, macronutrient and carbon cycling in the benthic layer), Peter J. Statham as Principal Investigator for work package 3 (Supply of iron from shelf sediments to the ocean), Icarus Allen as Principal Investigator for work package 4 (Integrative Modelling for Shelf Seas Biogeochemistry) and Keith Weston as Principal Investigator for work package 5 (Blue Carbon – How much carbon is stored in UK shelf seas, what influences storage and could it be used in carbon trading?). All data will be managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC).