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England

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  • This dataset consists of change data for areas of Broad Habitats across Great Britain between 1998 and 2007. The data are national estimates generated by analysing the sample data from up to 591 1km squares and scaling up to a national level. The data are summarized as percentage increase or decrease in habitat area per Land Class (areas of similar environmental characteristics) and are in a vector format. The sample sites are chosen from a stratified random sample, based on a 15 by 15 km grid of GB and using the 'ITE Land Classification' as a method of stratification. The data were collected as part of Countryside Survey, a unique study or 'audit' of the natural resources of the UK's countryside. The Survey has been carried out at regular intervals since 1978 by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. The countryside is sampled and surveyed using rigorous scientific methods, allowing us to compare new results with those from previous surveys. In this way we can detect the gradual and subtle changes that occur in the UK's countryside over time. Surveys have been carried out in 1978, 1984, 1990, 1998 and 2007 with repeated visits to the majority of squares. In addition to habitat areas, vegetation species data, soil data, linear habitat data, and freshwater habitat data are also gathered by Countryside Survey. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/d83a0f9e-00c9-4d2d-9d0a-e92a16dcb334

  • This dataset contains discharge and surface water chemistry for the six river reaches of contrasting geology (clay, sand, chalk) in the Hampshire Avon. Manual measurements of discharge by the velocity-area method enabled construction of a stage-discharge relationship for each site. Stream stage was measured using pressure transducers from Summer 2013 to Summer 2015. River water samples were collected at 48-hr intervals from Summer 2013 to Summer 2014 and samples were analysed for selected solutes and suspended sediment. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/0dd10858-7b96-41f1-8db5-e7b4c4168af5

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. This dataset provides the details of all sites which have been monitored as part of the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Data includes the location within the UK, the length and width of the line transect on each site, and how long the transect has been monitored. The UKBMS started in 1976 with fewer than 50 sites. The number of sites monitored each year has increased to over a thousand since 2008. There is turnover in sites monitored each year and details of the first and last year in which each site was surveyed are given. The majority of site data is provided by recorders at the time a transect is created. The majority of these recorders are volunteers. The Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) and Butterfly Conservation (BC) collate the data and the UKBMS is funded by a consortium of organisations led by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/814c6d77-1a16-4e94-bcf2-73823e3240fd

  • This dataset consists of hourly air temperature and wind speed data from a meteorological station sited on top of a boat house, located in Cumbria, England, next to Esthwaite Water. Measurements were taken every 4 minutes and calculated as hourly averages. The data were collected by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology between 2012 and 2015 inclusive. This dataset has been used in various publications, please see supporting documentation for more detail. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/40f5f2b4-4ebd-4dcd-8b45-3b6a46251161

  • This dataset provides data on the timing of butterfly flight periods for each UK butterfly species across all monitored sites in the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Annual data from over 2,500 sites are presented relating to the timing (first appearance, last appearance, date of peak abundance and mean flight date) and the duration (total number of days, standard deviation around the mean flight date) of the flight period for all UK butterfly species from 1976 to the present year. In addition, this data is divided each year for eleven multi-voltine species to provide separate phenology data for distinct flight periods associated with first and subsequent generations. Phenology change is a widely used measure of the biological impacts of climate change because of the close relationship between temperature and the timing of biological events. This dataset provides an invaluable tool for assessing the impacts of climate change both spatially and temporally. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award number NE/R016429/1 as part of the UK-SCAPE programme delivering National Capability. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/4bc7bb9f-4a7a-46ff-aa63-2747e248fd1e

  • This dataset contains measurements of hydraulic head and saturated hydraulic conductivity together with porewater chemistry from banks and riverbed sediments in six river reaches of contrasting geology (clay, sand, chalk) in the Hampshire Avon. Falling and rising (slug) test data were used for computation of saturated hydraulic conductivity. Hydraulic head measurements were obtained from pressure transducers installed in piezometers between Summer 2013 and Summer 2015. Samples for porewater chemical analysis were collected from porewater sampling tubes on the piezometer network between Summer 2014 and Summer 2015. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/d82a04ce-f04d-40b4-9750-1a2bf7dc29a3

  • This data set comprises of hourly physical and nutrient monitoring data of The Cut at Bray Marina (National grid reference SU915786), from May 2010 to February 2012. Parameters measured are total phosphorus, total reactive phosphorus, ammonium, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and total chlorophyll. The accompanying hourly averaged flow data (from the EA flow gauging station at Binfield, approximately 10 km upstream of the monitoring site) are also supplied. The monitoring programme was funded by the EPSRC, through the LIMPIDS project. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/abe4dd7c-a340-4595-a57f-8c1446ff7656

  • This dataset consists of hourly air temperature and wind speed data from a meteorological station sited on top of a boat house, located in Cumbria, England, next to Esthwaite Water. Measurements were taken every 4 minutes and calculated as hourly averages. The data were collected by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology between 2008 and 2011 inclusive. This dataset has been used in various publications, please see supporting documentation for more detail. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/9411b86e-7f43-4249-b3c2-f5adb04447cb

  • This dataset consists of a 25m resolution raster version of the Land Cover Map 2007 for Great Britain. Each 25m pixel represents a 25m area of land cover target class, broadly representing Broad Habitats (see below). The dataset is part of a series of data products produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology known as LCM2007. LCM2007 is a parcel-based thematic classification of satellite image data covering the entire United Kingdom. The map updates and upgrades the Land Cover Map of Great Britain (LCMGB) 1990 and LCM2000. Like the earlier 1990 and 2000 products, LCM2007 is derived from a computer classification of satellite scenes obtained mainly from Landsat, IRS and SPOT sensors and also incorporates information derived from other ancillary datasets. LCM2007 was classified using a nomenclature corresponding to the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) Broad Habitats, which encompasses the entire range of UK habitats. In addition, it recorded further detail where possible. The series of LCM2007 products includes vector and raster formats, with a number of different versions containing varying levels of detail and at different spatial resolutions. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/a1f88807-4826-44bc-994d-a902da5119c2

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. Site indices, as a relative measure of the actual population size, for UK butterfly species calculated from data from the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS). Site indices are a relative rather than an absolute measure of the size of a population, and have been shown to relate closely to other, more intensive, measures of population size such as mark, release, recapture (MRR) methods. The site index can be thought of as a relative measure of the actual population size, being a more or less constant proportion of the number of butterflies present. The proportion seen is likely to vary according to species; some butterfly species are more conspicuous and thus more easily detected, whereas others are much less easy to see. Site indices are only calculated at sites with sufficient monitoring visits throughout the season, or for targeted reduced effort surveys (timed observations, larval web counts and egg counts) where counts are generally obtained as close to the peak of the flight period as possible and are subsequently adjusted for the time of year and size of the site (area of suitable habitat type for a given species). Wider Countryside Butterfly Survey (WCBS) sites are thus excluded because they are based on very few visits from which accurate indices of abundance cannot currently be calculated. For transect sites a statistical model (a General Additive Model, 'GAM') is used to impute missing values and to calculate a site index. Each year most transect sites (over 90%) produce an index for at least one species and in recent years site indices are calculated for almost 1,500 sites across the UK. Site indices are subsequently collated to contribute to the overall 'Collated Index' for each species, which are relative measures of the abundance of each species across a geographical area, for example, across the whole UK or at country level in England, Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. Individual site indices are important in informing conservation management as not all sites show the same patterns for each species and likely reflect a combination of local climate and habitat management at the site. The UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme is organized and funded by Butterfly Conservation (BC), the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), and the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). The UKBMS is indebted to all volunteers who contribute data to the scheme. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/5c9c946d-34f8-4afb-83e3-f0cbc7123fec