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  • The mechanics of olivine deformation play a key role in long-term planetary processes, including the response of the lithosphere to tectonic loading or the response of the solid Earth to tidal forces, and in short-term processes, such as post-seismic creep within the upper mantle. Previous studies have emphasized the importance of grain-size effects in the deformation of olivine. Most of our understanding of the role of grain boundaries in the deformation of olivine is inferred from comparison of experiments on single crystals to experiments on polycrystalline samples, as there are no direct studies of the mechanical properties of individual grain boundaries in olivine. In this study, we use high-precision mechanical testing of synthetic forsterite bicrystals with well characterized interfaces to directly observe and quantify the mechanical properties of olivine grain boundaries. We conduct in-situ micropillar compression tests at high-temperature (700°C) on bicrystals containing low-angle (4• tilt about [100] on (014)) and high-angle (60• tilt about [100] on (011)) boundaries. During the in-situ tests, we observe differences in deformation style between the pillars containing the grain boundary and the pillars in the crystal interior. In the pillars containing the grain boundary, the interface is oriented at ∼ 45° to the loading direction to promote shear. In-situ observations and analysis of the mechanical data indicate that pillars containing the grain boundary consistently support elastic loading to higher stresses than the pillars without a grain boundary. Moreover, the pillars without the grain boundary sustain larger plastic strain. Post-deformation microstructural characterization confirms that under the conditions of these deformation experiments, sliding did not occur along the grain boundary. These observations support the hypothesis that grain boundaries are stronger relative to the crystal interior at these conditions. This data set is associated with the pre-print manuscript with the DOI: 10.22541/essoar.167979601.17867144/v1

  • This dataset contains raw (clean but not interpreted) triaxial compressive strength data of tests conductive at elevated pressure and temperature as outlined in "Vannucchi, P., Clarke, A., de Montserrat, A., Ougier-Simonin, A., Aldega, L., & Morgan, J. P. (2022). A strength inversion origin for non-volcanic tremor. Nature Communications, 13(1), 2311. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-29944-8". The data is provided in a .zip folder containing the files of 5 experiments that are accompanied by a README file for introduction. Files format is Microsoft Excel Worksheet (.xlsx) and data are tabulated. Each file contains the corresponding relevant sample’s details, and each column of data is clearly labelled, units included. For each experiment, time, axial force, axial displacement, axial stress, confining displacement, confining pressure, axial strain A and B, axial average strain, circumferential extensometer, circumferential strain, volumetric strain, internal temperature, and axial delta P were recorded. Triaxial testing was undertaken using the MTS 815 servo-controlled stiff frame inside a vessel capable of a confining pressure up to 140 MPa at the Rock Mechanics and Physics Laboratory, British Geological Survey, UK. The confining cell is fitted with external heater bands and utilizing utilizes cascade control from internal and external thermocouples (accurate to ± 0.5°C). An initial axial pre-load of 2.3 kN was applied, to ensure a stable contact and alignment of the platens. The confining pressure vessel was then closed and filled with mineral oil confining fluid. The axial pre-load was maintained whilst the confining pressure was applied at 2 MPa/min to 60 or 120 MPa; these values were chosen to approximately bracket the pressures at the up-dip limit of seismic nucleation, corresponding to 2 – 4 km depth (Arroyo et al., 2014). At this point, whilst held in axial force and confining pressure control, the rig was heated at 2°C/min to 60°C to approximate the average temperature conditions at the depth of the up-dip limit of seismic nucleation (Harris and Spinelli, 2010). The samples were then left for approximately 1 hour allowing thermal equilibrium to be reached throughout the confining fluid and the samples. Once stable, axial loading was initiated in constant axial strain rate control at a rate of 5.0 x 10-6 s-1 until macroscopic failure occurred or a significant amount of post peak-stress axial strain was recorded (between 2% and 5%). We note that one test was conducted at the higher temperature of T=120°C with a result within 2.5% of the strength at T=60°C (Table 1). As this is below the expected sample-to-sample variability, no further temperature studies were conducted. The axial load, axial load actuator displacement, axial stress (s1), differential stress (Q=s1 - s3), confining pressure Pc (= s2= s3), confining pressure actuator displacement, axial strain (eax), circumferential strain (ecirc) and temperature were monitored throughout at sampling frequencies of 1s and 0.5kN. File names are: YYYY-MM-DD_LabProjectNumber_SiteName-SampleNumber

  • These data represent a series of analyses exploring the seismic behaviours of low-cohesion volcanic sediments – in this case the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff - under varying strain rates. The data include deformation logs from triaxial compression experiments, and the accompanying 12-channel acoustic emission recordings at 10 MHz. These are paired with X-Ray Computed Tomography images of one of the cores from both before and after deformation, to examine damage behaviour. These data include: Deformation logs captured from the triaxial press Acoustic emission event data Processed acoustic emission sonograms for selected events Matlab code for processing of sonograms Matlab code for statistical analysis of the acoustic emission data Before and after X-Ray Computed tomography data for a core which underwent 2% strain at a rate of 4x10-6 s-1. These data relate to Rowley et al - Deformation controlled Long-Period seismicity in low cohesion volcanic sediments https://doi.org/10.31223/osf.io/7rkzv

  • This dataset contains raw experimental triaxial testing data as outlined in "Castagna, A., Ougier‐Simonin, A., Benson, P. M., Browning, J., Walker, R. J., Fazio, M., & Vinciguerra, S. (2018). Thermal damage and pore pressure effects of the Brittle‐Ductile transition in Comiso limestone. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 123(9), 7644-7660.s, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2017JB015105". The data is provided in a .zip folder containing the files of 16 experiments that are accompanied by a README file for introduction. Files format is Microsoft Excel Worksheet (.xlsx) and data are tabulated. Each file contains the corresponding relevant sample’s details, and each column of data is clearly labelled, units included. For each experiment, time, radial and axial pumps volume displacements and pressures, top and bottom pore fluid pumps volume displacements and pressures, internal temperature, LVDT signals were recorded. Twenty right cylindrical samples of ‘Comiso’ limestone (Ragusa Formation; Sicily) were tested in triaxial compression at a range of confining pressures simulating depths of 290 m, 620 m, 1.2 km, and 2.0 km respectively, assuming an average density of the over-burden load of 2470 kg/m3. Prior to strength test, each sample was either oven dried (ca. 12 hours at 85 °C followed by cooling in a desiccator for 1 hour) or water saturated (samples in distilled water under vacuum for 24 hours). A subset of these samples has also been thermally treated at 150, 300, 450 and 600oC to induce thermal cracking prior to the mechanical testing. All tests were conducted at 10-5 s-1 axial strain rate in assumed drained conditions when relevant, and at room temperature. For saturated tests, the initial loading was applied in two steps, first by increasing Pc hydrostatically (σ1=σ2=σ3) until the desired confining pressure was reached, and then introducing pore fluid pressure, as per the functionality of the experimental set-up. The experiments were conducted by Drs A. Castagna, M. Fazio and P. Benson using the Snachez triaxial cell at the Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the University of Portsmouth. All responsible for the collection and initial interpretation of the data. Only 17 experiments are reported in this set of data; the missing 3 datasets are believed to be only available on the local computer storage of the triaxial apparatus used at that time.

  • This dataset contains experimental hydrostatic testing data with ultrasonic surveys and acoustic emission data as outlined in "Panza, E., Agosta, F., Rustichelli, A., Vinciguerra, S. C., Ougier-Simonin, A., Dobbs, M., & Prosser, G. (2019). Meso-to-microscale fracture porosity in tight limestones, results of an integrated field and laboratory study. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 103, 581-595, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2019.01.043". The data is provided in a .zip folder containing 11 files, with 10 files for each mechanical tests and 1 containing all the geophysical data recorded and calculated; accompanied by a README file for introduction. Files format is Microsoft Excel Worksheet (.xlsx) and data are tabulated. Each file contains the corresponding relevant sample’s details, and each column of data is clearly labelled, units included. For each experiment, mechanical dataset recorded time, axial force, axial displacement, axial stress, confining displacement, confining pressure, axial strains A and B, circumferential extensometer, and internal temperature. Physical dataset recorded sample’s dimensions, density, compressional (P) wave arrival time and shear (S1, S2) wave arrival times; details of calculated velocities and elastic parameters are also given. Ten right cylindrical samples of limestone from the Altamura Formation sampled at Pontrelli Quarry were tested in hydrostatic compression at a range of confining pressures (Pc = σ1=σ2=σ3) from 0 to 50, or 80 MPa, at 2 MPa/min. Samples were cored either horizontal (H) or vertical (V) that is respectively sub-parallel and sub-orthogonal to bedding; the orientation is indicated in the sample’s ID. Ultrasonic velocity measurements were performed at Pc = 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10 MPa, and then at steps of 10 MPa up to the maximum Pc value. Each sample was tested oven dried (ca. 12 hours at 40 °C followed by cooling in a desiccator for 1 hour; all prior to the hydrostatic compression). All tests were conducted at room temperature. The experiments were conducted by Dr E. Panza, M. Dobbs and Dr A. Ougier-Simonin using the MTS815 Rock Testing System in triaxial configuration in the Rock Mechanics and Physics Laboratory of the British Geological Survey. All responsible for the collection and initial interpretation of the data.

  • This dataset contains raw experimental direct shear testing data as presented by "Ougier-Simonin, A., Castagna, A., Walker, R. J., & Benson, P. M. (2018). Frictional and mechanical behavior of simulated, sedimentary fault gouges. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 2018, pp. T11E-0212)". The data is provided in a .zip folder containing the files of 8 experiments that are accompanied by a README file for introduction. Files format is Microsoft Excel Worksheet (.xlsx) and data are tabulated. Each file contains the corresponding relevant sample’s details, and each column of data is clearly labelled, units included. For each experiment, time, axial force, axial displacement, axial stress, confining displacement, confining pressure, internal temperature, and axial delta P were recorded. Details of calculations for shear stress and coefficient of friction are also provided. Eight gouge (rock powder) samples of Monte Salici sandstone (Numidian Flysch, Appenninic-Maghrebian Chain; Sicily), ‘Comiso’ limestone (Ragusa Formation; Sicily) and Quaternary Clays (blue-grey clay in Fiumefreddo, Sicily) were tested in direct shear using sliding holders in triaxial compression at a confining pressure of 50 MPa. After 4 mm of axial (shear) displacement at 1 micron per second, variable rates of axial displacement were applied to induce velocity steps condition and measure rate-and-state parameters. Maximum displacement: ca. 9.8mm. All tests done at room temperature. The experiments were conducted by Drs A. Castagna and A. Ougier-Simonin using the MTS815 Rock Testing System in triaxial configuration and homemade sliding holders in the Rock Mechanics and Physics Laboratory of the British Geological Survey; both responsible for the collection and initial interpretation of the data. One test presented an issue on one of the signals recorded; the data are still shared for information purposes and the corresponding set of data is clearly named to indicate this fact.

  • This dataset contains raw experimental direct shear testing data as presented by "Ougier-Simonin, A., Castagna, A., Benson, P. and Walker, R. (2017). Direct shear characterisation of simulated clay-bearing gouges: a case study from the Pernicana Fault System (Mount Etna, Sicily). In EGU 2017 General Assembly Conference Abstracts (p. 15794)". The data is provided in a .zip folder containing the files of 12 experiments that are accompanied by a README file for introduction. Files format is Microsoft Excel Worksheet (.xlsx) and data are tabulated. Each file contains the corresponding relevant sample’s details, and each column of data is clearly labelled, units included. For each experiment, time, axial force, axial displacement, axial stress, confining displacement, confining pressure, internal temperature, and axial delta P were recorded. Details of calculations for shear stress and coefficient of friction are also provided. Twelve gouge (rock powder) samples of Monte Salici sandstone (Numidian Flysch, Appenninic-Maghrebian Chain; Sicily), ‘Comiso’ limestone (Ragusa Formation; Sicily) and Quaternary Clays (blue-grey clay in Fiumefreddo, Sicily) were tested in direct shear using sliding holders in triaxial compression at a range of confining pressures of 10, 30 and 50 MPa. Clay and sandstone samples tests were conducted at 0.3 microns per second of axial displacement rate; limestone and mixed gouges tests were conducted at 1 micron per second. Maximum displacement: ca. 9.8mm. All tests done at room temperature. The experiments were conducted by Drs A. Castagna and A. Ougier-Simonin using the MTS815 Rock Testing System in triaxial configuration and homemade sliding holders in the Rock Mechanics and Physics Laboratory of the British Geological Survey; both responsible for the collection and initial interpretation of the data.