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  • This dataset contains records for vegetation in 49 plots across 14 fragmented forest sites and 4 continuous forest sites in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Living vegetation and deadwood were surveyed in two or three 0.28-ha plots in each of the eighteen sites. In addition to vegetation data, the dataset contains topsoil parameters, measurements of forest structure, and metrics of the degree of forest fragmentation in the landscape surrounding the plots. These data were collected in order to conduct studies examining (1) the factors supporting invasion of exotic plant species into fragmented forest areas; and (2) the value of conservation set-asides for carbon storage and associated plant diversity in oil palm plantations. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset details information collected from smallholder oil palm farms in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Including: management practices, oil palm fruit yield, understorey vegetation, and soil chemical properties (SOC, total N, total P and available P). We collected data between August to November 2019 from 40 smallholdings (defined as farms < 50 ha) across six governance areas in Sabah. We used responses from face-to-face questionnaires to collect information about their management practices, including Best Management Practices (BMPs), and reported Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) yields. We also carried out field surveys on these farms to quantify vegetation cover and soil chemical properties. All smallholder farms had mature fruiting trees i.e. > 8 years since planting. The project received ethical approval from the Biology Ethics Committee, University of York (Ref. SGA201906), and permission from the Sabah Biodiversity Council (Ref. JKM/MBS.1000-2/2 JLD.8), Danum Valley Management Committee (Ref. YS/DVMC/2019/27), and South East Asia Rainforest Research Partnership (project number 18033) for permission to conduct our research in Sabah, Malaysia. This work was funded by the NERC iCASE studentship (NE/R007624/1) and Proforest. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset consists of survival and heights of trees planted for forest restoration in South and Southeast Asia and the associated analytical code. The data consists of tree censuses collated from published studies, grey literature and data provided by co-authors, up to/including May 2021. Data are collated from 176 sites in areas where disturbance or clearance of the natural forest had occurred and where trees were then planted and monitored over time. The analyses included here model height growth, extract annual size-standardised growth rates and test the effects of biophysical and climatic conditions and planting regimes on survival and growth. This dataset was created to represent the current state of knowledge on forest restoration outcomes in South and Southeast Asia. This is the full dataset for the survival and height analysis. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset consists of structure, biomass (carbon density) and biodiversity (plant species richness) from forest inventory plots at forest restoration sites in South and Southeast Asia and the code for the analyses of these data as conducted in Banin, Raine et al (2023). The recorded data consists of plot level censuses carried out up to May 2021 collated from published studies, grey literature and data provided by co-authors. This represents the collation of data from 11 sites in areas where disturbance had led to the clearance or degradation of natural forest. Plots where tree seedlings were planted (active restoration) and plots where no seedling planting took place (natural regeneration) were censused for structure, biomass and/or biodiversity. Some of the sites in the dataset also recorded data at old growth forest plots for reference, and/or provided repeat measures of forest metrics over time. The dataset also includes the code used for analysis of this plot level data, used to compare the outcome of different restoration approaches. Full details about this dataset can be found at