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  • The data contains urination metrics including frequency, volume, chemical composition, estimated urine patch N loading rates and metabolomics profile of individual urine events from sheep (Welsh Mountain ewe) grazing a semi-improved upland pasture and a lowland improved pasture located in North Wales, UK. Urine collection studies were run in the spring, summer and autumn of 2016 for the semi-improved site and in autumn of 2016 on the lowland improved pasture. Sheep were housed in urine collection pens and while in the pens, each individual urine event was collected and stored separately. The study was conducted as a wider part of the NERC funded Uplands-N2O project (Grant No: NE/M015351/1). The frequency, volume and chemical composition of individual urine events has implications for nitrogen losses from the grazed pasture ecosystem, including emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide, and nitrate leaching. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/385ec5ab-0c47-46fc-b5df-008ca024296f

  • Bird species data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) lowland terrestrial sites. These data were collected, using the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO)'s Common Bird Census methodology (CBC), at ECN's lowland terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. This protocol was abandoned in favour of the Breeding Bird Survey (Rennie et al (2017) UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) bird data: 1995-2015 https://doi.org/10.5285/5886c3ba-1fa5-49c0-8da8-40e69a10d2b5) in 1999; however, some sites continued to follow this protocol for a number of years after 1999 to allow comparison with the Breeding Bird Survey data. The CBC uses a mapping method in which a series of visits are made to all parts of a defined plot during the breeding season and contacts with birds by sight or sound are recorded on large-scale maps. Information from the series of visits is combined to estimate the number of territories found. Annual data are recorded but the date ranges available are variable for each site. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/8582a02c-b28c-45d2-afa1-c1e85fba023d

  • This dataset contains urine frequency and volume data measured from tri-axial accelerometers on Welsh mountain ewes free-grazing two contrasting upland field sites (semi-improved and unimproved pasture) in North Wales, across two seasons each (spring and autumn). The data, were collected using tri-axial accelerometers glued to the hind of Welsh Mountain ewes to study the urination behaviour of free-grazing sheep. Using a Boolean algorithm, the characteristic squatting position that ewes exhibit upon urination was detected in the accelerometer data. Initially the performance of the accelerometers with sheep in urine collection pens was assessed. Data were collected on the volume of each urination event and recorded the time of each observed urination event. This initial data was used to assess whether the accelerometers and Boolean algorithm were successful in identifying urination events, but also to ascertain whether the time spent in the squatting position would correlate with the volume of urine produced (thus allowing the technique to be able to estimate urine volume from squatting time only in subsequent field deployments). Information on when, where and how often livestock urinate are key data to be able to assess the scale and nature of nitrogen pollution arising from grazed agroecosystems. Urine patches deposited by grazing livestock are large sources of emissions of the greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide, due to high concentrations of nitrogen deposited over relatively small areas. These data were collected in the NERC funded Uplands-N2O project (grant award: NE/M015351/1). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/127afd24-d2cd-457f-b837-2dd5d328f101

  • Fine Grain Vegetation data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data are collected at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol (see supporting documentation). In this protocol, 10m x 10m plots are randomly selected within each vegetation type on the site - species presence is recorded in 40cm x 40 cm cells randomly selected within these plots. They represent continuous records every three years (some sites record data annually) from 1994 to 2015. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/b98efec8-6de0-4e0c-85dc-fe4cdf01f086

  • Baseline Vegetation data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data are collected at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol (see supporting documentation). This was a one-off whole site baseline vegetation survey (though given the intensive nature of this survey, some sites did it over successive years) to generate a vegetation map and identify the areas within the site to be monitored. In this protocol up to 500 systemic 2m x 2m plots were surveyed and species presence recorded. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/a7b49ac1-24f5-406e-ac8f-3d05fb583e3b

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. Woodland vegetation data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data are collected at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol (see Supporting documentation). This survey is conducted when plots surveyed during the coarse-grain survey fall in woodland. Seedlings, diameter at breast height (dbh), height and species dominance are recorded within a surrounding 10m x 10m plot. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/edfe7080-b9d4-4792-82ef-228ac670211a

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. Stream water discharge data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. The data (stage and discharge) are collected by loggers at ECN's terrestrial sites (where a stream is present) using a standard protocol. They represent continuous 15-minutely records from 1993 to 2012. The sites at which these data are collected are: Glensaugh, Moor House-Upper Teesdale, Sourhope, Wytham and Y Wyddfa (Snowdon). ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/f39f4588-0255-47b4-a61b-03848eb2f8c4

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. Spittle Bug data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data are collected by quadrat sampling at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol . They represent continuous annual records from 1993 to 2012. Spittle Bug adults (Philaenus spumarius) are sampled and separated by sex and by colour morph; it is likely that the proportions of morphs are environmentally determined and will therefore be good indicators of environmental change. Spittle bug nymphs are counted and the mean number of nymphs per spittle recorded. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/e1c292b0-12c7-4998-b48f-7a83a203e604

  • [THIS DATASET HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN]. Moth data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Counts of individual species are recorded. These data are collected by moth traps at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol.They represent continuous nightly records from 1992 to 2012. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/9cf26366-6ce1-4e5e-b648-05345a43e15d

  • Spittle Bug data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data are collected by quadrat sampling at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol . They represent continuous annual records from 1993 to 2015. Spittle Bug adults (Philaenus spumarius) are sampled and separated by sex and by colour morph; it is likely that the proportions of morphs are environmentally determined and will therefore be good indicators of environmental change. Spittle bug nymphs are counted and the mean number of nymphs per spittle recorded. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/aff433be-0869-4393-b765-9e6faad2a12b