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  • Data comprise tree trait data collected during September and October 2016 (the peak dry season), in the Caxiuanã National Forest Reserve, eastern Amazon, Brazil. 17 traits (including plot type, tree species name, diameter at breast height, tree light score, carboxylation capacity, electron transport capacity, leaf respiration in the dark, stomatal conductance, stem CO2 efflux, leaf mass per area, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus content, branch wood density, leaf water potential, xylem pressure, lumen conductance, percentage loss of conductivity, hydraulic Safety Margin and leaf area to sapwood area ratio) of 176 trees (most common genera) were sampled across two experimental plots: a one-hectare through-fall exclusion plot with a plastic panel structure that excludes 50% of the canopy through-fall and has done since 2002 and a corresponding one-hectare control plot without any drought structure. This data comes from the Caxiuanã through-fall exclusion (TFE) experiment located in the terra firma forest, on yellow oxisol soils at 15 m above sea level, with a mean annual rainfall between 2,000–2,500 mm and a pronounced dry season between June and November. Full details about this dataset can be found at