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  • This is the output from high-resolution model simulations of ocean conditions and melting beneath the floating part of Thwaites Glacier. The model is designed to study how these conditions change as the geometry of Thwaites Glacier evolved from 2011-2022. There is one simulation using the geometry from each year during this period, derived from satellite observations. The simulations are repeated for different ocean model forcing conditions, as described in the associated paper. PH was supported by the NERC/NSF Thwaites-MELT project (NE/S006656/1). ITGC contribution number 099. *******PLEASE BE ADVISED TO USE VERSION 2.0 DATA******* Version 2 is available at https://doi.org/10.5285/473eb97c-63a8-4002-8b72-e7f07b2ab228. (Version 1 has the seabed bathymetry and ice shelf topography files incorrectly oriented.)

  • This dataset encompasses data produced in the study ''Seasonal Arctic sea ice forecasting with probabilistic deep learning'', published in Nature Communications. The study introduces a new Arctic sea ice forecasting AI system, IceNet, which predicts monthly-averaged sea ice probability (SIP; probability of sea ice concentration > 15%) up to 6 months ahead at 25 km resolution. The study demonstrated IceNet''s superior seasonal forecasting skill over a state-of-the-art physics-based sea ice forecasting system, ECMWF SEAS5, and a statistical benchmark. This dataset includes three types of data from the study. Firstly, IceNet''s SIP forecasts from 2012/1 - 2020/9. Secondly, the 25 neural network files underlying the IceNet model. Thirdly, CSV files of results from the study. The codebase associated with this work includes a script to download this dataset and reproduce all the paper''s figures. This dataset is supported by Wave 1 of The UKRI Strategic Priorities Fund under the EPSRC Grant EP/T001569/1, particularly the "AI for Science" theme within that grant and The Alan Turing Institute. The dataset is also supported by the NERC ACSIS project (grant NE/N018028/1).

  • This is the output from high-resolution model simulations of ocean conditions and melting beneath the floating part of Thwaites Glacier. The model is designed to study how these conditions change as the geometry of Thwaites Glacier evolved from 2011-2022. There is one simulation using the geometry from each year during this period, derived from satellite observations. The simulations are repeated for different ocean model forcing conditions, as described in the associated paper. PH was supported by the NERC/NSF Thwaites-MELT project (NE/S006656/1). ITGC contribution number 099. *******PLEASE BE ADVISED TO USE VERSION 2.0 DATA******* (Version 1 had the seabed bathymetry and ice shelf topography files incorrectly oriented.)

  • This dataset provides daily, 8-day, and monthly Arctic melt pond fractions and binary classification, from 2021-05-01 to 2022-08-31. Level-2 MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances for bands 1-4 were obtained, to which two machine learning algorithms such as multi-layer neural networks and logistic regression were applied to map melt pond fraction and binary melt pond/ice classification. This work was funded by NERC standard grant NE/R017123/1.

  • This dataset provides daily, 8-day, and monthly Arctic melt pond fractions and binary classification, from 2000-06-01 to 2020-08-31. Level-2 MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances for bands 1-4 were obtained, to which two machine learning algorithms such as multi-layer neural networks and logistic regression were applied to map melt pond fraction and binary melt pond/ice classification. This work was funded by NERC standard grant NE/R017123/1.

  • This dataset provides model output for 20th-century ice-ocean simulations in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica. The simulations are performed with the MITgcm model at 1/10 degree resolution, including components for the ocean, sea ice, and ice shelf thermodynamics. Atmospheric forcing is provided by the CESM Pacific Pacemaker Ensemble, using 20 members from 1920-2013. An additional simulation is forced with the ERA5 atmospheric reanalysis from 1920-2013. The simulations were completed in 2021 by Kaitlin Naughten at the British Antarctic Survey (Polar Oceans team). Supported by UKRI Fund for International Collaboration NE/S011994/1.

  • This study took place from 12 November to 1 December 2015, at the emperor penguin colony at Rothschild Island (-69.5 S, -72.3 W) located on sea ice < 1 km from the eastern coastline of the island in Lazarev Bay. ARGOS telemetry devices were attached to adult emperor penguins en route to, or from, the colony. The last recorded positions were on 26 April 2016 when data collection was terminated; at this date six instruments were still transmitting. PTT devices were deployed as a joint operation between Philip Trathan (British Antarctic Survey), and Barbara Wienecke (Australian Antarctic Division). Catrin Thomas acted as the BAS Field General Assistant. Funding: This work was supported by the UKRI/ BAS ALI-Science project and to the Australian Antarctic Program. Philip Trathan was also supported by WWF (UK) under grant GB095701.

  • Sea ice index comprising data extracted from historical records of ship observed ice positions during Weddell Sea voyages between 1820-1843. Extracted data comprise information on the expedition ship and lead, type of document, the date on which the observation was made, the ship''s latitude and longitude at the time of the observation, comments on sea ice and sea ice present (1 if deemed present, 0 if not). Publication assisted by Leverhulme Emeritus Fellowship EM-2022-042 to Professor Grant R. Bigg: "Extending the Southern Ocean marine ice record to the eighteenth century".

  • Persistent organic pollutant concentrations in artificial sea ice experiments at the Roland von Glasow Air-Sea-Ice Chamber (RvG-ASIC) at the University of East Anglia, UK. Experiments involved investigating chemical contaminant behaviours during sea ice formation and melt in order to assess possible exposure risk to sea ice biota. Funding was provided by: NERC ENVISION Doctoral Training Centre (NE/L002604/1). NERC and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) funded Changing Arctic Ocean program EISPAC project (NE/R012857/1). British Antarctic Survey Collaboration Voucher. EUROCHAMP-2020 Infrastructure Activity under grant agreement (No 730997).

  • Year-round measurements of the water column in Ryder Bay, Western Antarctic Peninsula have been collected by the Rothera Marine Assistant and associated researchers, starting in 1997 as part of the Rothera Oceanographic and Biological Time Series (RATS) to assess temporal variability in physical and biogeochemical oceanographic properties. The data were collected using instrumentation deployed from rigid inflatable boats, or through instrumentation deployed through holes cut in the sea ice when the bay is frozen over in winter. Data collected include profiles to about 500m depth with a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) system that produces measurements of temperature, salinity, fluorescence and photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR). Individual water samples are collected with a Niskin bottle from a standard 15m depth, with some samples also collected from the surface layer. These individual samples are analysed for size-fractionated chlorophyll, macronutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, orthophosphate and silicic acid), stable isotopes of oxygen in seawater, and some ancillary parameters. The bottle data have been quality controlled using international reference standards. Profiling and water sample collection occur with quasi-weekly frequency in summer and weekly in winter, but are weather and sea ice dependent. In addition, daily assessments of sea ice concentration and sea ice type are made from nearby Rothera Research Station by visual inspection, to aid interpretation of the ocean data collected. These data constitute one of the longest time series of ocean measurements in Antarctica, with near-unique systematic data collection in winter, within either polar circle. Data collection has been supported since 1997 by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) through core funding supplied to the British Antarctic Survey. Since 2017, it has been supported by NERC award "National Capability - Polar Expertise Supporting UK Research" (NE/R016038/1).