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  • Seventy-nine Antarctic ice core snow accumulation records were gathered as part of a community led project coordinated by the PAGES Antarctica 2k working group. Individual ice core records (kg m2 yr-1) were normalised relative to a reference period (1960-1990). The normalised records were separated into seven geographical regions and averaged together to form the regional composites. The seven geographical regions are: East Antarctica; Wilkes Land Coast; Weddell Sea Coast; Antarctic Peninsula; West Antarctic Ice Sheet; Victoria Land; and Dronning Maud Land. Full data description and methods can be found in Thomas et al., 2017. This record also includes the original data, from which the composite records were produced. This dataset represents an updated version of another published dataset. The update was necessary due to erroneous data contained in the files. Please use this corrected dataset in preference to the other one.

  • Seventy-nine Antarctic ice core snow accumulation records were gathered as part of a community led project coordinated by the PAGES Antarctica 2k working group. Individual ice core records (kg m2 yr-1) were normalised relative to a reference period (1960-1990). The normalised records were separated into seven geographical regions and averaged together to form the regional composites. The seven geographical regions are: East Antarctica; Wilkes Land Coast; Weddell Sea Coast; Antarctic Peninsula; West Antarctic Ice Sheet; Victoria Land; and Dronning Maud Land. Full data description and methods can be found in Thomas et al., 2017. This record also includes the original data, from which the composite records were produced. Due to erroneous data contained in the files, this dataset has been superseded by a corrected version. Please use that corrected dataset in preference to this one to avoid the problem. The DOI for the updated data is: 10.5285/cc1d42de-dfe6-40aa-a1a6-d45cb2fc8293

  • These 21 Last Interglacial (LIG) summer surface air temperature (SSAT) observations were compiled to assess LIG Arctic sea ice (Guarino et al 2020). Twenty of the observations were also previously used in the IPCC-AR5 report. Each observation is thought to be of summer LIG air temperature anomaly relative to present day and is located in the circum-Arctic region. All sites are from north of 51N. There are 7 terrestrial based temperature records; 8 lacustrine records; 2 marine pollen-based records; and 3 ice core records included in the original compilation. This compilation includes 1 additional ice core record. This work was funded by NERC standard research grant nos. NE/P013279/1 and NE/P009271/1.

  • A record of the oxygen-isotope ratios and net accumulation from an ice core drilled on Dyer Plateau in the Antarctic Peninsula is presented. This 233 m long ice core was drilled in the southern summer season of 1989/90. The isotope data covers the years 1505 to 1988. The snow accumulation data covers 1840 to 1988.

  • Ground truth measurements in the form of snow/ice cores were obtained from three sites in 2006: Rothschild Island, Latady Island and Smyley Island. The sites selected corresponded to the position of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) deployed during the previous season. At both the Rothschild Island and Smyley Island sites the AWS - due to an unprecedented amount of snowfall - had been buried. Therefore, two cores, 8m and 12m in length, were obtained from the approximate position of the AWS, in addition to the sampling of a snow pit. At the Latady Island site, the top 60cm of the 5m AWS was protruding above the surface - again, due to an unprecedented amount of snowfall. A diagonally descending trench was dug to recover the AWS and two cores were collected at this site. This work was carried out as part of a project to understand how air mass origin and meteorology affect the mass accumulation of snow in areas of the Antarctic Peninsula, and how the atmosphere''s properties are preserved in the snow, Photographs of the expedition showing the ground layout, the situation of the cores and what was done when they were gathered are available and stored with the data.

  • This dataset presents the annual and sub-annual diatom records preserved in a set of ice cores from the Antarctic Peninsula and Ellsworth Land over the 1992-2019 CE interval, as presented in Tetzner et al. (2022). Annual diatom abundance (annual d-abundance) data are provided as annual averages for the 1992-2019 CE interval. Annual diatom concentration (annual d-concentration) data are provided as annual averages over the 1992-2019 CE interval. Sub-annual diatom concentration (sub-annual d-concentration) data are provided for each ice core as depth profiles for the 2002-2006 CE interval. Annual d-abundance and d-concentration are timeseries. Column A represents years between 1992 and 2019 CE. Annual data are listed for each ice core site alphabetically (Jurassic (JUR), Rothschild Island (ROIC), Sherman Island (SHIC) and Sky-Blu (SKBL)). Sub-annual d-concentration data are depth profiles. Column A represents ice depth (m). The ice depth interval presented in each file represents the 2002-2006 CE interval. Diatom abundance data are presented as the number of diatoms identified in an ice core annual layer (diatoms a-1). Diatom concentration data are presented as the number of diatoms identified per unit volume of water (L) contained on each annual (or sub-annual) sample (diatoms L-1). This dataset was created with the support of the Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (grant number 72180432).

  • This data compilation is a collaborative effort by the CLIVASH2k (Climate Variability in Antarctica and the Southern Hemisphere over the past 2000 years) working group, part of the PAGES2k network. The database is a compilation of sodium and sulphate records from Antarctic ice cores spanning the past 2000 years, and contains a combination of published records (sourced from public archives), and unpublished data submitted to the CLIVASH2k call. All data are provided as annual averages (Jan-Dec). This database includes the annually resolved section of each original dataset (in the annual_resolution folder) and the coarser than annual sections (in the coarse_resolution folder). Annual averages for the oldest and most recent years were only included if the available data covered more than half of the year. All concentration values are presented in parts per billion (ppb). All flux values are presented in ppb by kilogram per square meter (ppb kg m-2). Data for each species are contained in separate CSV files; Sodium concentration (Na_concentration), Sodium flux (Na_flux), Sulphate concentration (SO4_concentration), Sulphate flux (SO4_flux), Excess Sulphate (xsSO4), Excess Sulphate flux (xsSO4_flux). Each file contains the data for all sites. The Excess Sulphate and Excess Sulphate flux calculations assume that all Na comes from the ocean (according to the standard seawater ion ratio as in [Holland, 1978]). Data were submitted in both the ionic (e.g. SO42-) and elemental forms (S). Elemental S has been converted to sulphate (SO42-) by multiplying by three. A data description publication accompanies this database: Thomas et al., The CLIVASH2k ice core chemistry database: an Antarctic compilation of sodium and sulphate records spanning the past 2000 years. Earth System Science Data. This database was created with the support of the CLIVASH2k project.

  • This dataset provides a 308 year record of methansulphonic acid (MSA) from coastal West Antarctica, representing sea ice conditions in the Amundsen-Ross Sea. Annual average MSA has been calculated from the 136 m Ferrigno ice core (F10), drilled on the Bryan Coast in Ellsworth Land, West Antarctica during the austral summer 2010/11. The sea ice extent is based on geometric mean regression of MSA flux with satellite sea ice extent from 146 degrees west. The record was measured using a Dionex ICS2500 anion system at 5 cm resolution, corresponding to approximately 14 samples a year. Funding was provided by the NERC grant NE/J020710/1.

  • This dataset provides an annual isotope record from the Gomez (GZ07) ice core, dating back to the 1850s. The 136 m core was drilled on the South-western Antarctic Peninsula, during January 2007. We present a new 150-year, high-resolution, stable isotope record (delta-O-18) from the Gomez ice core, drilled on the data sparse south western Antarctic Peninsula. The record is highly correlated with satellite-derived temperature reconstructions and instrumental records from Faraday station on the north west coast, thus making it a robust proxy for local and regional temperatures since the 1850s.

  • We present the age scales for three Antarctic Peninsula (AP) ice cores: Palmer, Rendezvous, and Jurassic. The three age scales are all from intermediate-depth cores, in the 133-141 m depth range. The Palmer age scale covers 390 years, 1621-2011 C.E., and is from one of the oldest AP cores. Rendezvous and Jurassic are from lower elevation high-snow accumulation sites and therefore cover shorter intervals, 1843-2011 C.E. and 1874-2011 C.E., respectively. The Palmer, Rendezvous, and Jurassic cores were all drilled in November-December 2012 using the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) electromechanical dry drill (without drill fluid). Water isotopes and the chemical species used to establish the age scales were measured in the ice core labs at BAS (Cambridge, UK) using Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) or from melted discrete cut ice samples. The annual-layer markers for dating of the cores were primarily determined using nssSO4 and H2O2 summer peaks, with d18O and MSA as additional support. This research effort was carried out by the BAS Ice Core group and the established age scales will provide the foundation for multiple upcoming projects. The ice core drilling and analysis was funded by the British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council (NERC, Cambridge, UK), part of UK research and innovation and NERC grant [NE/J020710/1]. Palmer analysis was funded by Haus der Kulturen der Welt (HKW, Berlin, Germany), in collaboration with the Anthropocene working group (AWG).