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  • [This dataset is embargoed until August 1, 2024]. This dataset includes results from biodiversity, social and environmental surveys of 46 oil palm smallholders and farms in Riau, Indonesia. Biodiversity data includes: pitfall trap data on arthropod abundance and higher-level order identification, sticky trap data on flying invertebrate abundance (identified to higher-level order), transect data on assassin bugs, Nephila spp. spiders and butterflies (identified to species), counts of insects visiting oil palm inflorescences if any open (identified to Elaeidobius kamerunicus and higher-level orders for other groups) and data on meal worm removal from each plot. Environmental data includes: soil temperature readings recorded over 24 hours, information on size of plot, crop type and cover, GPS location, vegetation cover, vegetation height, canopy density, epiphyte cover, soil pH, soil moisture, leaf litter depth, horizon depths, palm herbivory and palm health. Social data includes information (all anonymised) on: plot area, number of palms, sociodemographic data, plantation management practices applied, knowledge and value assigned to wildlife, and yield. Data were collected from November 2021 to June 2022. Full details about this dataset can be found at

  • This dataset contains terrestrial fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and ecosystem respiration (carbon dioxide (CO2)) calculated from static chamber measurements in mature oil palm plantations on mineral soil, managed by Sinar Mas Agro Resources and Technology Research Institute (SMARTRI) and located on the Ujung Tanjung Estate in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia. Measurements were made monthly, from October 2018 until September 2019. A total of 54 static chambers were installed across nine plots, representing three different understory vegetation treatments: normal complexity (an intermediate-level of understory spraying with herbicide); reduced complexity (spraying of all understory vegetation with herbicides); and enhanced complexity (no herbicide spraying and limited understory cutting). Six chambers were installed in each of the nine plots, resulting in 18 replicates of each treatment. In addition, soil moisture measurements were also taken around each chamber. The dataset was associated with a foreign research permit, issued by Foreign Research Permit Division Ministry of Research and Technology/National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia. As the project spanned two years it was covered by two permits, RISTEK permit number: 323/SIP/FRP/E5/Dit.KI/X/2018 and RISTEK permit number: 8B/TKPIPA/E5/Dit.KI/VIII/2019. Full details about this dataset can be found at