The data are from X-ray tomographic analyses of tubular fossils. All scans were carried out using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM) except for specimen SMNH X 5324 which was also analysed using Ptychographic X-ray Computed Tomography (PXCT). The methods are described in the paper. The data consist of a stacked series of .tif files that represent maps of X-ray attenuation. The individual slices can be viewed with standard graphics software. The datasets can be studied in 3D using tomographic reconstruction software such as Avizo (www.vsg3d.com/), Spiers (www.spiers-software.org/), VG Studio Max (www.volumegraphics.com) etc. The voxel size, which is needed for scale calculations, varies between datasets and is given below. Some datasets consist of two 'blocks' of data, with slices named [specimen name]_B1 and [specimen name]_B2. These are placed in the same folder and follow on directly from one another. They can be opened together as a single dataset. The files relate to the following publication: Cunningham, J. A., Vargas, K., Liu, P., Belivanova, V., Marone, F., Martinez-Perez, C., Guizar-Sicairos, M., Holler, M., Bengtson, S. & Donoghue, P. C. J. 2015. Critical appraisal of tubular putative eumetazoans from the Ediacaran Weng'an Doushantuo biota. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B: Biological Sciences.
The datasets contain 416 time-resolved synchrotron X-ray micro-tomographic images (grey-scale and segmented) of multiphase (brine-oil) fluid flow in a carbonate rock sample at reservoir conditions. The tomographic images were acquired at a voxel-resolution of 3.28 µm and time-resolution of 38 s. The data were collected at beamline I13 of Diamond Light Source, U.K., with an aim of investigating pore-scale processes during immiscible fluid displacement under a capillary-controlled flow regime, which lead to the trapping of a non-wetting fluid in a permeable rock. Understanding the pore-scale dynamics is important in many natural and industrial processes such as water infiltration in soils, oil recovery from reservoir rocks, geo-sequestration of supercritical CO2 to address global warming, and subsurface non-aqueous phase liquid contaminant transport. Further details of the sample preparation and fluid injection strategy can be found in Singh et al. (2017). These time-resolved tomographic images can be used for validating various pore-scale displacement models such as direct simulations, pore-network and neural network models, as well as to investigate flow mechanisms related to the displacement and trapping of the non-wetting phase in the pore space.
Table S1.xlsx is Table S1, which contains 2D measurements of cell clusters used in Fig. 5 (this is also available from the publisher's website). The folders SMNH X 4447, SMNH X 5331 and SMNH X 5357 contain data from X-ray tomographic analyses of fossils figured in the paper: For SMNH X 5331 (the conical fossil that is the focus of the paper) there are two zip archives: 1. Slice data and Avizo files, containing: - Slice data: the raw scan data (.tif image stack) - Label files for cell clusters and individual cells: Avizo projects (.hx) containing the labels and the files required to open the project file. The cluster labels are based on a downsampled version of the data which is included here as slice data (.tif image stack). Voxel sizes for this file are 0.325 x 1.3 x 0.325 micrometers. 2. Working files, containing: - Surface models: .ply files for clusters and individual cells. - Segmented stacks: the label files as .tif stacks (voxel sizes as per slice data: 0.325 x 0.325 x 0.325 micrometres (cell labels); 0.325 x 1.3 x 0.325 micrometers (cluster labels)). SMNH X 4447 and SMNH X 5357 (two specimens figured for comparison) there is: - Slice data: zip archives of the raw scan data (.tif image stack). The individual slices (.tif images) can be viewed with standard graphics software, and the datasets can be studied in 3D using tomographic reconstruction software such as Avizo (www.vsg3d.com/), Spiers (www.spiers-software.org/), VG Studio Max (www.volumegraphics.com) etc. The Avizo project and label files (.hx and .am files) require Avizo software (www.vsg3d.com/) to be opened. The 3D models (.ply files) are widely compatible with 3D freeware packages such as MeshLab (http://meshlab.sourceforge.net/) or Blender (https://www.blender.org/), or with proprietary software, e.g. Avizo (www.vsg3d.com/), Geomagic (http://www.geomagic.com/en/), Mimics (http://biomedical.materialise.com/mimics). The files relate to the following publication: Cunningham, J. A., Vargas, K., Marone, F., Bengtson, S. & Donoghue, P. C. J. 2016. A multicellular organism with embedded cell clusters from the Ediacaran Weng'an biota (Doushantuo Formation, South China). Evolution & Development
The datasets contains two sets of three dimensional images of Ketton carbonate core of size 5 mm in diameter and 11 mm in length scanned at 7.97µm voxel resolution using Versa XRM-500 X-ray Microscope. The first set includes 3D dataset of dry (reference) Ketton carbonate. The second set includes 3D dataset of reacted Ketton carbonate using hydrochloric acid.
Reconstructed data - This dataset contains the reconstructed image data. Each sub-folder contains a set of 2D slices that together make up a 3D image from that time point. Not all images from all datasets have been reconstructed, the values in parentheses refer to the scan numbers that have been reconstructed. Raw data - This dataset contains the raw unprocessed image data collected during the development of the XRheo system. Processed data - This dataset contains the post-processing outputs from analysis of the data from the XRheo development experiments. Each sub-folder contains the files generated during filtering, segmentation and separation of the features [M (melt), B (bubbles), X (crystals)], and the post processing analysis for size distributions and tracking. The data sets included are the results of dynamic X-ray tomography experiments performed on multiphase synthesised magmas being deformed under known temperature and strain rates for a concentric cylinder geometry.
This dataset contains three dimensional synchrotron x-ray tomographic (SRXTM) datasets and analyses of nuclei and nucleoli in embryo-like fossils from the Ediacaran Weng'an Biota. The data accompanies the following paper: Yin Z, Cunningham JA, Vargas K, Bengtson S, Zhu M, Donoghue PCJ. 2017. Nuclei and nucleoli in embryo-like fossils from the Ediacaran Weng'an Biota. Precambrian Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.precamres.2017.08.009 Each .7z archive zip file contains the data relating to a single specimen.
We imaged the steady-state flow of brine and decane at different fractional flows during dual injection in a micro-porous limestone using X-ray micro-tomography. We applied differential imaging on Estaillades carbonate to (a) distinguish micro-porous regions from macro-pores, and (b) determine fluid phase pore occupancy and relative permeability at a capillary number, Ca = 7.3×10-6. The sample porosity was approximately 28 %, with 7% in macro-pores and 21% in pores that could not be directly resolved (micro-porosity). We find that, in addition to brine and decane, a fraction of the macroscopic pore space contains an intermittent phase, which is occupied either by brine or oil during the hour-long scan time. Furthermore, fluid occupancy in micro-porosity was classified into three sub-phases: micro-pore space with oil, micro-pore space with brine, and micro pores partially filled with oil and brine.
Grant: ACT ELEGANCY, Project No 271498. Medical CT scans for drainage multiphase flow through carbonate rock cores. The steady state drainage multiphase flow at elevated pressure using nitrogen and DI water, are carried out for three heterogeneous carbonate rocks to characterize the impact of heterogeneity on flow. Core Floods are performed on three carbonate rocks namely, Indiana limestone, Estaillades limestone and Edwards dolomites. Experiments are carried out using medical CT scanner and N2-water fluid system at high pressure. Drainage core floods are carried out by varying nitrogen fractional flow rates from 0 to 1. Residual trapping is obtained at the end of drainage cycle by water flooding of the core. These rocks are from three difference quarries. Indiana carbonate is from Salem Formation located in Indian, USA. Estaillades limestone is from Oppède quarry, France. Edwards dolomite is from Texas, USA. The data set contain medical CT Dry scans, nitrogen scans , water scans and scans at varying fractional flow of nitrogen; 1 readme file; 1 excel file; 27 zip files.
The datasets contain 40 time-resolved segmented X-ray micro-tomographic images showing mineral dissolution of carbonate rock samples containing dolomite and calcite via CO2 acidified brine fluid flow at reservoir conditions. The tomographic images were acquired at a voxel-resolution of 5.2 µm and time-resolution of 33 minutes. The data were collected with lab based microCT, with an aim of investigating the influences of rock mineral and physical heterogeneity on dissolution patterns and changes to dynamic rock properties at the pore-scale. Further details of the experimental methodology can be found in Al-Khulaifi et al. (2019). These time-resolved tomographic images can be used to validate pore-scale multimineral reactive transport models.
Grant: NE/N016173/1.The data presented herein comprises raw and segmented X-Ray micro-CT data, CMG simulation files and Matlab processing files for the paper 'Representative elementary volumes, hysteresis and heterogeneity in multiphase flow from the pore to continuum scale'. The data is organised as Core 1 and Core 2 respectively. Full core scans are obtained at a resolution of 6 microns. Region of interest (ROI) scans are obtained at 3.45 micron and 2 micon (core 1) and 3.5 micron (core 2). Resolution information is contained within the file names. Voxel sizes in the image files can be changed to match these values. Experimental post-processing files contain the upscaled saturations and porosity values in 3D, which are used in the paper. It also contains the pore-filling analysis. The CMG simulation files contain the input deck, 3D digitial core information (porosity, capillary pressure) needed to simulate both the drainage and imbibition core floods, with corresponding Matlab analysis files. These are Bentheimer outcrop cores obtained from Shell, Amsterdam. It is a shallow marine rock, deposited during the Lower Cretaceous. It outcrops between Enschede and Schoonenbeek in the Netherlands.