From being a metal with very limited natural distribution,indium (In) has recently become disseminated throughout the human society. Little is know of how In compounds behave in the natural environment, but recent medical studies link exposure to In compounds to elevated risk of respiratory disorders. Animal tests suggest that exposure may lead to more widespread damage in the body, notably testicular cancer. In this paper, we investigate the solubility of the most widely used In compound, indium-tin oxide (ITO) in simulated lung and gastric fluids in order to better understand the potential pathways for metals to be introduced into the bloodstream. Our results show significant potential for release of In and tin (Sn) in the deep parts of the lungs (artificial lysosomal fluid) and digestive fluids, while the solubility in the upper parts of the lungs (the respiratory tract or tracheobronchial tree, simulated by Gamble's solution) is very low. Our study confirms that ITO is likely to remain as solid particles in the upper parts of the lungs, but that particles are likely to at dissolve in the deep lungs. Considering the prolonged residence time of inhaled particles in the deep lung and the high solubility of ITO in artificial lysosomal fluids, the environment of the deep lungs is likely to provide the major route for assimilation of In and Sn from inhaled ITO nano- and microparticles. Digestion is likely to also lead to assimilation through dissolution in the stomach and interaction with digestive enzymes in the pancreatic juice. However, this route is less likely to lead to substantial assimilation because of the much shorter residence times of particles in the digestive system.
Discrete data for trace elements for both the dissolved and acid available fractions for thirteen core sites in the Humber catchment over the period 1993 to 1997 and for three sites from the Tweed catchment over the period 1994 to 1997. Part of the Land Ocean Interaction Study project (LOIS). Trace elements measured were: Aluminium (Al), Antimony (Sb), Arsenic (As), Barium (Ba), Beryllium (Be), Boron (B), Cadmium (Cd), Cerium (Ce), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Gadolinium (Gd), Iron (Fe), Lanthanum (La), Lead (Pb), Lithium (Li), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), Neodymium (Nd), Nickel (Ni), Rubidium (Rb), Samarium (Sm), Scandium (Sc), Strontium (Sr), Tin (Sn), Uranium (U), Yttrium (Y), Zinc (Zn). The Core sites were sampled at regular weekly intervals and more intermittently during high flows (on average an extra sampling once a month per site). The Swale sites were sampled during hydrological events and the Aire sites were sampled both weekly and during hydrological events. The majority of samples were obtained using a wide neck grab sampler. Those samples collected from the Aire during hydrological events were obtained using EPIC automatic samplers. Both dissolved and acid available trace element fractions were determined for all samples. The dissolved fraction was measured by filtering samples and acidifying the filtrates with concentrated aristar grade nitric acid (1%vv) on the same day of sampling. The acid available fraction was determined by acidifying an unfiltered sample as above and agitating for 24 hours, at room temperature, prior to filtration. Samples were then analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES: B, Ba, Fe, Mn, Sr) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS: Al, As, Be, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Gd, La, Li, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sn, U, Y, Zn). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/69f62656-567c-42dd-bb65-8f0cbbeb1693
Data from analyses of addled and deserted sea eagle eggs collected by licensed collectors in Scotland. Contaminants reported include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides or their persistent metabolites, and a range of metals and metaloids. The white-tailed sea eagle has been re-introduced to a number of Scottish Islands since the 1980s. The Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme (PBMS) is a long-term, national monitoring scheme that quantifies the concentrations of contaminants in the livers and eggs of selected species of predatory and fish-eating birds in Britain. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/72ed6237-aedf-43a7-b9e3-eef95320a2bb