This dataset documents the trends and variability in the latitude and strength of the belt of lower-atmosphere westerly winds over the Southern Ocean, referred to as the ''westerly jet''. Time series of annual mean and seasonal diagnostics are available for the period 1979-present, specifically time series of seasonal and annual mean jet latitude and strength. The diagnostics are derived from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim reanalysis (for more information see www.ecmwf.int and Dee et al. (2011)), which is an observationally-constrained reconstruction of atmospheric conditions. The broad characterisation of the westerly winds into these simple diagnostics has been found to be useful for understanding long-term climate change due to contrasting drivers of change and impacts on other aspects of the climate system. This is an index of winds around the full circumference of all longitudes at Southern Hemisphere middle latitudes. The exact latitude depends on the position of the jet at any given time, but on average the jet (the core of the westerlies) is located at approximately 52 deg S.
Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) profiles collected onboard ship during multiple cruises in the Southern Ocean between Oct 2002 and Jan 2006.
Acoustic backscatter data were collected on board the RRS James Clark Ross (cruise JR179) as part of the BIOFLAME-BIOPEARL programme. Data were collected using a Simrad EK60 echo sounder. Data were collected throughout the cruise which ran through the Drake Passage, Bellingshausen Sea and Amundsen Sea in the Southern Ocean, from February to April 2008. The raw data files (Simrad .raw format) are held by the Polar Data Centre (PDC) at the British Antarctic Survey (BAS).
The KRILLBASE-length frequency database comprises individual length measurements of 613487 Euphausia superba from 6470 scientific net hauls. Some of these individually-measured krill have additional information on their sex and maturity stage. Most of these E. superba are postlarvae, but some of the hauls include small (< 20 mm) krill which likely include furcilia larvae as well as juveniles. Much of these data were compiled at British Antarctic Survey in 2007 by Mark Jessopp, with additional compilation by Angus Atkinson, Catherine Brewster and Natalie Ensor, and later data checking by Angus Atkinson with Helen Peat. The circumpolar distribution of records is illustrated in the file KRILLBASE_LF_DISTRIBUTION that is available along with this dataset. Examples of uses of KRILLBASE-length frequency are in Atkinson et al. (2009), Tarling et al. (2016), Perry et al. (2019) and Atkinson et al. (2019). The KRILLBASE-length frequency records were provided by contributing authors of the database or transcribed from the literature or from other institutional databases. At the time of data compilation, data from commercial-size large mesh trawls and from the commercial fishery was also transcribed, providing valuable information on the larger krill caught by these nets. These data are not included in this current KRILLBASE-length frequency database version, because of the difficulty in comparing them with the finer mesh scientific nets compiled here, and because length and population structure are also available in more complete form from CCAMLR. The KRILLBASE-length frequency database forms a complementary database to the KRILLBASE-abundance database (doi:10.5285/8b00a915-94e3-4a04-a903-dd4956346439), which compiles the abundance of Euphausia superba and salps in the Southern Ocean (Atkinson et al 2017). Both databases are multi-national, circumpolar compilations of net samples spanning years 1926 to 2016. The KRILLBASE-length frequency database uses some of the stations as KRILLBASE-abundance but also additional ones from targeted hauls or horizontal hauls.
Among all possible interaction types, trophic interactions are easily observable and essential in terms of energy transfer, and thus binary networks have arisen as the most straightforward method to describe complex ecological communities. These food-web models also inform on the ecosystem dynamics and function, and the patterns arising from food web topology can be indicators for ecosystem stability. We present a comprehensive pelagic network for the Scotia Sea underpinned by surveys and dietary studies conducted in the Scotia Sea in the last century. Selection of the trophic links followed a protocol based on taxonomy and geographic location, and was further refined based on the consumer and resource depth ranges and their body size ratios. The resulting network consists on 228 nodes and 10880 links which represent the main trophic paths in the Scotia Sea ecosystem and can serve as a basis for ecosystem modelling in the Scotia Sea or comparison with other ecosystems. Funding was provided by NERC Highlight Topic grant NE/N005937/1 and NERC Fellowship NE/L011840/1.
Datasets from a deep sediment trap (3200m) mooring deployed in the Southern Ocean, south-west of South Georgia in December 2009 during the marine cruise JR228 and recovered in November 2011 by the marine cruise JR260a.
Datasets from a deep sediment trap (3200m) mooring deployed in the Southern Ocean, south-west of South Georgia in April 2007 during the marine cruise JR167 and recovered in January 2008 by the marine cruise JR177.
Datasets from a deep sediment trap (3200m) mooring deployed in the Southern Ocean, south-west of South Georgia in January 2008 during the marine cruise JR177 and recovered in November 2008 by the marine cruise JR187.
SOMBASE is a tool for looking at marine molluscs in the seas around Antarctica. Using a database and the latest mapping technology it is possible to display all the places where a family, genus or species has been found on an electronic map. These maps show us how widely spread different organisms are and if they prefer a particular area or type of habitat. The database can also be used to address questions about biodiversity in the seas around Antarctica and how it''s unique environment affects which animals are found there. SOMBASE contains comprehensive distribution records of Antarctic, Magellanic, and Sub-Antarctic Gastropods and Bivalves as well as records for many other species from the Southern Hemisphere. Based upon published records and British Antarctic Survey data these distribution maps form part of a biogeographic database, which also includes taxonomic, ecological and habitat data. The database contains information on over 3,250 species from more than 3,800 locations.
Datasets from a deep sediment trap (3200m) mooring deployed in the Southern Ocean, south-west of South Georgia in December 2015 during the marine cruise JR15002 and recovered in December 2016 by the marine cruise JR16003.