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Fossils

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  • Computed tomography (CT) scans of extant and fossil chondrichthyans, of teeth organized into functional dentitions. These scans were taken on a Nikon Metrology HMX ST 225, in the Image and Analysis Centre, Natural History Museum, London.

  • The data are from X-ray tomographic analyses of tubular fossils. All scans were carried out using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM) except for specimen SMNH X 5324 which was also analysed using Ptychographic X-ray Computed Tomography (PXCT). The methods are described in the paper. The data consist of a stacked series of .tif files that represent maps of X-ray attenuation. The individual slices can be viewed with standard graphics software. The datasets can be studied in 3D using tomographic reconstruction software such as Avizo (www.vsg3d.com/), Spiers (www.spiers-software.org/), VG Studio Max (www.volumegraphics.com) etc. The voxel size, which is needed for scale calculations, varies between datasets and is given below. Some datasets consist of two 'blocks' of data, with slices named [specimen name]_B1 and [specimen name]_B2. These are placed in the same folder and follow on directly from one another. They can be opened together as a single dataset. The files relate to the following publication: Cunningham, J. A., Vargas, K., Liu, P., Belivanova, V., Marone, F., Martinez-Perez, C., Guizar-Sicairos, M., Holler, M., Bengtson, S. & Donoghue, P. C. J. 2015. Critical appraisal of tubular putative eumetazoans from the Ediacaran Weng'an Doushantuo biota. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B: Biological Sciences.

  • Reflectance Transformation Imaging files for the type specimen GSM105875 [IGSN:UKBGSGSM105875] and two paratypes GSM106040 [IGSN:UKBGSGSM106040] , GSM106112 [IGSN:UKBGSGSM106112] of Hylaecullulus fordi, a new species of rangeomorph from the Bradgate Formation (Ediacaran) of Charnwood Forest, UK. Supporting information for Kenchington, Dunn and Wilby - Modularity and overcompensatory growth in rangeomorphs (late Ediacaran, approx. 580-541 Ma): adaptations for coping with environmental pressures. Current Biology.

  • The map shows the localities of significant fossil samples, either collected by BGS Staff, or donated by individuals and institutions. The BGS fossil collections contain over 2 million specimens, including a sizeable quantity of type, figured and cited material. Since a small number of fossil locations are confidential, you are unable to view this dataset at large scales. However, if you send a data enquiry, such information may be made available. Enquiries are normally free, but a charge may be levied depending upon the time taken; users will be notified in advance. Material is available for inspection on application by e-mail. Specimens are sometimes available for loan to bona fide academics.

  • Table S1.xlsx is Table S1, which contains 2D measurements of cell clusters used in Fig. 5 (this is also available from the publisher's website). The folders SMNH X 4447, SMNH X 5331 and SMNH X 5357 contain data from X-ray tomographic analyses of fossils figured in the paper: For SMNH X 5331 (the conical fossil that is the focus of the paper) there are two zip archives: 1. Slice data and Avizo files, containing: - Slice data: the raw scan data (.tif image stack) - Label files for cell clusters and individual cells: Avizo projects (.hx) containing the labels and the files required to open the project file. The cluster labels are based on a downsampled version of the data which is included here as slice data (.tif image stack). Voxel sizes for this file are 0.325 x 1.3 x 0.325 micrometers. 2. Working files, containing: - Surface models: .ply files for clusters and individual cells. - Segmented stacks: the label files as .tif stacks (voxel sizes as per slice data: 0.325 x 0.325 x 0.325 micrometres (cell labels); 0.325 x 1.3 x 0.325 micrometers (cluster labels)). SMNH X 4447 and SMNH X 5357 (two specimens figured for comparison) there is: - Slice data: zip archives of the raw scan data (.tif image stack). The individual slices (.tif images) can be viewed with standard graphics software, and the datasets can be studied in 3D using tomographic reconstruction software such as Avizo (www.vsg3d.com/), Spiers (www.spiers-software.org/), VG Studio Max (www.volumegraphics.com) etc. The Avizo project and label files (.hx and .am files) require Avizo software (www.vsg3d.com/) to be opened. The 3D models (.ply files) are widely compatible with 3D freeware packages such as MeshLab (http://meshlab.sourceforge.net/) or Blender (https://www.blender.org/), or with proprietary software, e.g. Avizo (www.vsg3d.com/), Geomagic (http://www.geomagic.com/en/), Mimics (http://biomedical.materialise.com/mimics). The files relate to the following publication: Cunningham, J. A., Vargas, K., Marone, F., Bengtson, S. & Donoghue, P. C. J. 2016. A multicellular organism with embedded cell clusters from the Ediacaran Weng'an biota (Doushantuo Formation, South China). Evolution & Development

  • Interrelated specimens and records compiled over 150 years of palaeontological collecting and research. All associated paper data (registers, indexes of locality and storage, reports of conclusions).

  • Two datasets containing multiple diversity metrics of planktonic foraminifera. Recent data is from MARGO (Multiproxy approach for the reconstruction of the glacial ocean surface); Eocene data is from NEPTUNE (a relational database of microfossil occurrence records from DSDP and ODP publications), supplemented by literature searches. These data are related to Fenton et al (2016) Phil Trans (DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0224) Data used in Fenton et al (2016) Environmental predictors of diversity in Recent planktonic foraminifera as recorded in marine sediments. The original data is from the MARGO database (Kucera, 2007)

  • A comprehensive collection of British fossil specimens and records compiled over 150 years of palaeontological collecting and research. Also includes all associated paper data, registers, indexes of locality and storage and reports of conclusions. The specimens have variable scattered coverage mostly within the UK and Ireland but there are some overseas data. Some specimens are sited accurately to less than 1 metre, whilst some specimens have accuracies of several kilometres. Includes both locality based biostratigraphic material, plus significant type, figured and cited samples of taxonomic importance. Specimens collected by Survey geologists throughout history of Survey, with some donated specimens (e.g. the Geological Society of London Collection) predating 1835, material is still being added. The collection includes hand specimens, casts & moulds, microfossil slides & cut sections and also registers containing identifications and locality information. The specimens have various uses within biostratigraphy and taxonomy. The data have key attribute data such as locality, stratigraphic age, matrix lithology, taxonomy, etc that could be used for linking in other datasets. Access and use of the data is subject to current policies, inline with MDA's (Museum Documentation Association) Spectrum guidelines and MLA's (Museum Libraries Archives Council) Accreditation guidelines. The collection can be viewed by loan or visit, whilst copies of the associated paper data can be made available as photocopy, scan, spreadsheet, etc., subject to certain constraints and conditions.

  • Phylogenetic data matrices used to assess the differences between hard and soft morphological characters For more details see: Fossilization causes organisms to appear erroneously primitive by distorting evolutionary trees Robert S. Sansom & Matthew A. Wills Scientific Reports 3, Article number: 2545 (2013) doi:10.1038/srep02545

  • The folders GMPKU2311, GMPKU3089, ELISN108-343 and ELISN31-5 contain data from X-ray tomographic analyses of fossil embryos and post-embryonic stages as described: There is one data folder provided for each specimen, each containing the following: - Raw data: zip archive containing the raw scan data (.tif image stack). - Working files: zip archive containing the segmented slices (.tif image stack exported from Avizo labels). - Avizo project: the Avizo .hx project file. - Avizo labels: the Avizo .am labels file, containing the segmentation information. - 3D model: the 3D surface computed from the segmented labels data (.stl file). In the case of GMPKU2311 only the raw data and 3D model file are provided, as the surface was computed directly from an isosurface of the specimen in Avizo. The individual slices (.tif images) can be viewed with standard graphics software, and the datasets can be studied in 3D using tomographic reconstruction software such as Avizo (www.vsg3d.com/), Spiers (www.spiers-software.org/), VG Studio Max (www.volumegraphics.com) etc. The Avizo project and label files (.hx and .am files) require Avizo software (www.vsg3d.com/) to be opened. The 3D models (.stl files) are widely compatible with 3D freeware packages such as MeshLab (http://meshlab.sourceforge.net/) or Blender (https://www.blender.org/), or with proprietary software, e.g. Avizo (www.vsg3d.com/), Geomagic (http://www.geomagic.com/en/), Mimics (http://biomedical.materialise.com/mimics). The files relate to the following publication: Dong, X.; Vargas, K.; Cunningham, J. A.; Zhang, H.; Liu, T.; Chen, F.; Liu, J.; Bengtson, S. & Donoghue, P. C. J. 2015. Developmental biology of the early Cambrian cnidarian Olivooides. Journal of Paleontology.