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Electrical conductivity of the water column

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  • For around a decade, southern elephant seals (mirounga leonina) have been used to collect hydrographic (temperature & salinity) profiles in the Southern Ocean. CTD-SRDLs (Conductivity Temperature Depth –Satellite Relayed Data Loggers) attached to seals' heads in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic locations measure water property profiles during dives and transmit data using the ARGOS (Advanced Research & Global Observation Satellite) network (Fedak 2013). CTD-SRDLs are built by the Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU, University of St Andrews, UK); they include miniaturised CTD units made by Valeport Ltd. When seals are foraging at sea 2.5 profiles can be obtained daily, on average. Profiles average 500m depth, but can be 2000m in extreme cases (Boehme et al. 2009, Roquet et al. 2011). Deployment efforts have been very intensive in the Southern Indian Ocean, with biannual campaigns in the Kerguelen Islands since 2004 and many deployments in Davis and Casey Antarctic stations (Roquet et al., 2013) more recently. 207 CTD-SRDL tags have been deployed there, giving about 75,000 hydrographic profiles in the Kerguelen Plateau area. About two thirds of the dataset was obtained between 2011 & 2013 as a consequence of intensive Australian Antarctic station deployments. There is also regular data since 2004 from French and Franco-Australian Kerguelen Island deployments. Although not included here, many CTD-SRDL tags deployed in the Kerguelen Islands included a fluorimeter. Fluorescence profiles can be used as a proxy for chlorophyll content (Guinet et al. 2013, Blain et al. 2013). Seal-derived hydrographic data have been used successfully to improve understanding of elephant seal foraging strategies and their success (Biuw et al., 2007, Bailleul, 2007). They provide detailed hydrographic observations in places and seasons with virtually no other data sources (Roquet et al. 2009, Ohshima et al. 2013, Roquet et al. 2013). Hydrographic data available in this dataset were edited using an Argo-inspired procedure and then visually. Each CTD-SRDL dataset was adjusted using several delayed-mode techniques, including a temperature offset correction and a linear-in-pressure salinity correction - described in Roquet et al. (2011). Adjusted hydrographic data have estimated accuracies of about +/-0.03oC and +/-0.05 psu (practical salinity unit). The salinity accuracy depends largely on the distribution of CTD data for any given CTD-SRDL, which decides the quality of adjustment parameters. Adjustments are best when hydrographic profiles are available in the region between the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front and the Antarctic divergence (55oS-62oS latitude range in the Southern Indian Ocean). Several institutes provided funding for the associated programs and the logistics necessary for the fieldwork. The observatory MEMO (Mammifères Echantillonneurs du Milieu Marin), funded by CNRS institutes (INSU and INEE), carried out the French contribution to the study. The project received financial and logistical support from CNES (TOSCA program), the Institut Paul-Emile Victor (IPEV), the Total Foundation and ANR. MEMO is associated with the Coriolis centre, part of the SOERE consortium CTD02 (Coriolis-temps différé Observations Océaniques, PI: G. Reverdin), which distributes real-time and delayed-mode products. The Australian contribution came from the Australian Animal Tracking and Monitoring System, an Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) facility. The work was also supported by the Australian Government's Cooperative Research Centres Programme via the Antarctic Climate & Ecosystem Cooperative Research Centre. The University of Tasmania and Macquarie University's Animal Ethics Committees approved the animal handling. Both tagging programs are part of the MEOP (Marine Mammals Exploring the Oceans Pole to Pole) international consortium - an International Polar Year (IPY) project.

  • The North Atlantic Norwegian Sea Exchange (NANSEN) data set comprises hydrographic profiles (temperature and salinity) and time series of current velocity, temperature and occasionally conductivity from the North Atlantic Ocean. The measurements were collected between 1986 and 1988 using conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profilers, moored current meters and thermistor chains. Data collection was undertaken by six laboratories in four countries (Faroes, Germany, Norway and the UK). The NANSEN project was conceived by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Oceanic Hydrography Working Group. It aimed to study the hydrography and circulation of the Iceland Basin and the temporal and spatial variability of the inflows and outflows across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. Current meter data from a number of laboratories involved in NANSEN and CTD data collected by UK participants are managed by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC). A further 50 current meter series have been collected, but have not yet been acquired by BODC. The data will be subjected to the usual BODC quality control procedures for current meter series. The hydrographic data set collected during the NANSEN experiment has been compiled by the ICES Secretariat.

  • The dataset comprises 36 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from across the Irish Sea and St. George's Channel, and the North East Atlantic Ocean (limit 40W) areas specifically from around the Rosemary Bank and George Bligh Bank areas. The data were collected during August and September 1978. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences Wormley Laboratory.

  • The data set comprises more than 7000 time series of ocean currents from moored instruments. The records contain horizontal current speed and direction and often concurrent temperature data. They may also contain vertical velocities, pressure and conductivity data. The majority of data originate from the continental shelf seas around the British Isles (for example, the North Sea, Irish Sea, Celtic Sea) and the North Atlantic. Measurements are also available for the South Atlantic, Indian, Arctic and Southern Oceans and the Mediterranean Sea. Data collection commenced in 1967 and is currently ongoing. Sampling intervals normally vary between 5 and 60 minutes. Current meter deployments are typically 2-8 weeks duration in shelf areas but up to 6-12 months in the open ocean. About 25 per cent of the data come from water depths of greater than 200m. The data are processed and stored by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) and a computerised inventory is available online. Data are quality controlled prior to loading to the databank. Data cycles are visually inspected by means of a sophisticated screening software package. Data from current meters on the same mooring or adjacent moorings can be overplotted and the data can also be displayed as time series or scatter plots. Series header information accompanying the data is checked and documentation compiled detailing data collection and processing methods.

  • The dataset comprises 19 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from the North Sea specifically the north western North Sea and north of Scotland area during July 2004. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Fisheries Research Services Aberdeen Marine Laboratory.

  • The dataset comprises 5 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from across the North East Atlantic Ocean (limit 40W) area including specifically the Scalloway Deeps, the Southern Trench of the Moray Firth, the Noup Head, the Copinsay, and Scapa Flow. Measurements taken during April 2005. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Fisheries Research Services Aberdeen Marine Laboratory.

  • The dataset comprises 86 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from all across the North Sea area during July and August of 2006. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Fisheries Research Services Aberdeen Marine Laboratory.

  • The dataset comprises 9 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from across the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland area specifically at Loch Kishorn, Loch Duich, Loch Hourn, Loch Nevis and Loch Sunart. Data were collected during October and November of 2002. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Fisheries Research Services Aberdeen Marine Laboratory.

  • The dataset comprises 15 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from across the North Sea area specifically west of Halibut Bank and north east of Peterhead, during April 2006. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Fisheries Research Services Aberdeen Marine Laboratory.

  • The dataset comprises 6 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from across the North Sea area specifically the Firth of Forth, east coast of Scotland, Wee Bankie, Marr Bank and Farne Deeps to Scaup bank. Data were collected during March and April 2000. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Fisheries Research Services Aberdeen Marine Laboratory.