During 2005-2006 season, water samples were collected from Ryder Bay at the Rothera Time Series (RaTS) site. A biogeochemical profile of water samples was conducted at 5 depths: 0m (surface), 5m, 10m, 15m and 25m In addition to this, primary productivity measurements using 14C-sodium bicarbonate in conjunction with water-cooled light gradient (photosynthetron) and also nutrient uptake measurements using 15N labelled stable isotopes, were performed on the water samples.
Zooplankton faecal pellet abundance, volume and flux were determined from samples collected at three stations in the Scotia Sea, Southern Ocean during cruise JR304. Samples were collected at six depths within the 0 - 400 m epi- to upper mesopelagic using Niskin bottles attached to a CTD unit and were preserved in a formalin-based solution. Fluorescence data were collected during the same deployments. Sampling was performed by C. Liszka and G. Tarling on board RRS James Clark Ross. Sample analysis was performed by C. Liszka at BAS HQ in Cambridge.
Water samples were collected for chlorophyll and nutrient concentrations, biogenic and lithogenic silica concentrations, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC/PON) concentrations, phytoplankton identification, Si, C, N, and Ge isotopes, particulate Ba, and other trace elements associated with suspended particles. Some samples were collected by small boat launched from Rothera research station and other seawater samples were collected from under the ice by divers. Water was also collected from RaTs (Rothera Oceanographic and Biological Time Series) CTD sites 1 and 2, and from Honeybucket (off Rothera Point). Brine was collected by drilling a hole, washing out and waiting for the hole to fill (sack-hole drilling). Blocks of ice were also collected and stored at -80 degrees C before being thawed for analysis. The sea-ice and brine was analysed for trace metals (Al, Zn, Cd and Co) for 5 different collection dates in 2004/2005.
Two moorings were deployed and recovered using the James Clark Ross (cruise numbers: JR112/113, JR155). One was deployed in Ryder Bay at the Rothera Oceanographic and Biological Time Series (RaTS) oceanographic station midway between Rothera Point and Leonie Islands. The other was deployed in deep water in northern Marguerite Bay. The moorings were used to monitor particle flux, currents, salinity and temperature. Two sediment traps on each mooring were used to measure biogenic flux from surface waters to the seafloor and quantify changes down the water column.
Water samples were collected from Ryder Bay at the Rothera Time-Series (RaTS) site, using a small boat. A biogeochemical profile was performed at the following 5 depths: 0m (surface), 5m, 10m, 15m and 25m, for four RaTS events on: 7 January, 13 January, 19 January and 1 February 2005. Samples were taken for: phytoplankton nitrate, ammonium and urea uptake measurements, using stable isotope incubations and also primary production PvE curves were produced using 14C radioisotope incubations; Dissolved macronutrients (nitrate, silicate, phosphate, and urea); Surface dissolved iron. A scaled-down sampling RaTS event was performed by the Rothera Marine Assistants involving sampling for all above measurements once every 3 weeks at the 5m depth only at the RaTS site.