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  • Acoustic backscatter data were collected on board the RRS James Clark Ross (cruise JR177) as part of the Discovery 2010 programme. Data were collected using a Simrad EK60 echo sounder at 38, 120 and 200 kHz. The EK60 was run continuously from Stanley (Falkland Islands) to Signy (South Orkney Islands), then to South Georgia across the Scotia Sea in the austral summer from December 2007 - February 2008. Dedicated acoustic transects were also run at a number of stations within these transects. The EK60 was calibrated during JR177 (10-11th February 2008). More information about the calibration can be found in the Cruise Report for JR177: https://www.bodc.ac.uk/data/information_and_inventories/cruise_inventory/report/jr177.pdf JR177 was the second of three cruises which comprise the field studies of the British Antarctic Survey''s (BAS) core science Discovery 2010 programme, funded by the Natural Environment Research Council.

  • Acoustic backscatter data were collected on board the RRS James Clark Ross (cruise JR179) as part of the BIOFLAME-BIOPEARL programme. Data were collected using a Simrad EK60 echo sounder. Data were collected throughout the cruise which ran through the Drake Passage, Bellingshausen Sea and Amundsen Sea in the Southern Ocean, from February to April 2008. The raw data files (Simrad .raw format) are held by the Polar Data Centre (PDC) at the British Antarctic Survey (BAS).

  • Acoustic backscatter data were collected on board the RRS James Clark Ross (cruise JR161) as part of the Discovery 2010 programme. Data were collected using a Simrad EK60 echo sounder at 38, 120 and 200 kHz. The EK60 was run continuously from Stanley (Falkland Islands) to Signy (South Orkney Islands), then to South Georgia across the Scotia Sea in the austral spring (October - December) of 2006. Dedicated acoustic transects were also run at eight stations within these transects. The EK60 was calibrated prior to data collection on a previous cruise (JR159 on 13-14th October 2006). More information about the calibration can be found in the Cruise Report for JR159: https://www.bodc.ac.uk/data/information_and_inventories/cruise_inventory/report/jr152_jr159.pdf JR161 was the first of three cruises which comprise the field studies of the British Antarctic Survey''s (BAS) core science Discovery 2010 programme, funded by the Natural Environment Research Council.

  • Acoustic backscatter data were collected on board the RRS James Clark Ross (cruise JR200) as part of the Discovery 2010 programme. Data were collected using a Simrad EK60 echo sounder. This cruise ran two transects (Stanley to Signy and Signy to South Georgia) across the Scotia Sea in the austral autumn (March - April) of 2009. Within these transects, there were a series of stations at which dedicated acoustic transects were run, although the EK60 was run continuously throughout the cruise. JR200 was the third of three cruises which comprise the field studies of the Discovery 2010 programme. The programme was designed to analyse interactions in the Southern Ocean ecosystem. The raw data files (Simrad .raw format) are held by the Polar Data Centre (PDC) at the British Antarctic Survey (BAS).

  • Acoustic backscatter data were collected on board the RRS James Clark Ross (cruise JR15004) as part of the British Antarctic Survey''s Long Term Monitoring and Survey programme. Data were collected using a Simrad EK60 echo sounder at 38, 70, 120 and 200 kHz. The EK60 was run almost continuously from Stanley (Falkland Islands) to Signy (South Orkney Islands), then back to Stanley (Falkland Islands) in the austral summer from January 2016 - February 2016.

  • Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data collected in the Southern Ocean, northwest of South Georgia, between 2002 and 2006. The ADCP measures speed and direction of the water current at different levels of the water column, as well as recording the backscatter of zooplankton in the water column (it used sound waves of 300kHz). Data were collected by deployment of sub-surface moorings equipped with physical and biological sensor systems. The main buoys with the sensor systems were designed to float 200m below the water surface, to minimise the impact of icebergs while giving good sample coverage for the upper water column. The acoustic instruments were oriented upwards towards the surface and each mooring had 3 monitoring systems on-board: 1) a water column profiler (WCP), 2) an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and 3) a Conductivity/ Temperature/ Depth (CTD) analyser. This work took place as part of a project to: a) quantify the magnitude and timing of short-term, ecologically-significant, intra-annual variability in krill abundance at South Georgia; b) describe the effect of oceanic tides at the two locations; c) test the hypothesis that krill immigration to, and hence abundance at, South Georgia is mediated by influx of cold waters; and d) determine functional responses of predators to short term variations in prey (krill) abundance. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is of vital importance to the South Georgia marine ecosystem providing food for a high proportion of Antarctic wildlife, and is eaten by most animals (seals, whales, birds, fish, squid, penguins).

  • Water Column Profiler (WCP) data collected from shallow (300m) and deep (1300m) moorings in the Southern Ocean between Nov 2004 and April 2005. The WCP estimated the krill biomass using sound waves of 120kHz. Data were collected by deployment of sub-surface moorings equipped with physical and biological sensor systems. The main buoys with the sensor systems were designed to float 200m below the water surface, to minimise the impact of icebergs while giving good sample coverage for the upper water column. The acoustic instruments were oriented upwards towards the surface and each mooring had 3 monitoring systems on-board: 1) a water column profiler (WCP), 2) an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and 3) a Conductivity/ Temperature/ Depth (CTD) analyser. This work took place as part of a project to: a) quantify the magnitude and timing of short-term, ecologically significant, intra-annual variability in krill abundance at South Georgia; b) describe the effect of oceanic tides at the two locations; c) test the hypothesis that krill immigration to, and hence abundance at, South Georgia is mediated by influx of cold waters; and d) determine functional responses of predators to short term variations in prey (krill) abundance. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is of vital importance to the South Georgia marine ecosystem providing food for a high proportion of Antarctic wildlife, and is eaten by most animals (seals, whales, birds, fish, squid, penguins).