Dissolved inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations, dissolved organic carbon concentrations and glacier algal cell abundance are quantified for supraglacial environments in the Dark Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet during July and August 2016. Samples include surface ice with varying degrees of visible impurities, cryoconite hole water and supraglacial stream water. Surface ice samples are comprised of the top 2 cm of a 1x1 m ice surface area. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were quantified for all ice surface, supraglacial stream and cryoconite hole water samples collected. Glacier algae abundance was quantified for ice surface samples. Field blank corrections were conducted for all DIN, DON, DIP, DOP and DOC data. Any values resulting below the instrument limit of detection were considered to be 0. Funding was provided by the NERC ''Black and Bloom'' grant NE/M021025/1 and the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 675546.
Measurements of benthic invertebrate particle reworking, bioirrigation, and associated nutrient concentrations used in the analyses by Solan et al. 2020 (see referenced publication) for shipboard incubations of replicate macrofaunal communities from the Western Barents Sea during summer 2017 and summer 2018. Samples were collected on cruises JR16006 and JR17007. Funding was provided by ''The Changing Arctic Ocean Seafloor (ChAOS) - how changing sea ice conditions impact biological communities, biogeochemical processes and ecosystems'' project (NE/N015894/1 and NE/P006426/1, 2017-2021), part of the NERC funded Changing Arctic Ocean programme.
The long term monitoring of water chemistry in Signy Island lakes is unique in polar limnology, in its duration (30+ years), detail, and range of sites. It details seasonal patterns of snow and ice cover, inorganic nutrient status and chlorophyll-a and includes vertical profiles of various physical chemical parameters. There are detailed data for several study lakes and twice/thrice yearly analyses for all the Signy Island lakes. Temperature and light climate has been studied in certain lakes using automatic data loggers. Micrometeorological monitoring with additional data loggers provided data on solar radiation (PAR, UVR), air temperature, humidity and wind conditions. Data are collected by chemical analysis, use of temperature, pH light probes and observation. The ''grand prix'' was the sampling of 16 lakes in a short period (approx. one week), this was carried out perhaps two or three times a year. Approximately three to five lakes were sampled monthly or fortnightly in more detail, these were representative of the 16 lakes. Comparative studies were also undertaken in the Arctic. The long-term programme was established in 1971, although some observations were made in 1963/1964 and 1969/1970. The programme finished in 2004. As the exact months of the data collection were not provided, and the metadata standard requires a YYYY-MM-DD format, this dataset has been dated as 1st January for start date, and 31st December for stop date.