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EARTH SCIENCE > Biosphere > Ecological Dynamics

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From 1 - 10 / 17
  • These data comprise diatom species frequency and environmental (geographic and limnological) data from 64 lakes on subantarctic Marion Island (46deg55''S, 37deg45''E) that were collected in April-May 2011. 143 diatom species were identified from the lake waters. Environmental data consist of Ca, K, Mg, Na, Fe, Al, Cl, SO4, NO3, NO2, NH4, P, HCO3, pH, conductivity, water temperature, and salinity measurements. Geographical data consist of Latitude, Longitude, Altitude, and geological substrate parameters. This work forms part of the thesis of van Nieuwenhuyze (2015). This work was funded by Belgian Science Policy Office project CCAMBIO (SD/BA/03) and a Research Foundation-Flanders travel bursary awarded to E. Verleyen.

  • The chronology of Gentoo penguins on Bird Island, South Georgia has been monitored since 1988 (no data for 1989-90 or 1990-91). 30 nests are marked in the colony at Square Pond, and 40 in the Johnson Beach colony. Regular checks are made to record when eggs are laid and the peak laying date (when 75% of nests have eggs) is calculated.

  • Macaroni penguins spend the winter at sea and return to colonies on land during the austral spring to reproduce. Arrival weights of male and female Macaroni penguins on Bird Island, South Georgia have been monitored since 1988. The current protocol is that 50 males are weighed on 28th October and 50 females on 8th November.

  • The weight of Antarctic fur seal pups at Main Bay on Bird Island have been measured since 1973. 50 pups on the beach and 50 pups in the Tussac grass at the back of the beach are sexed and weighed in January, February and March each year.

  • The weights of chicks in monitored nests of Black-browed Albatrosses are measured at 80 and 108 days after hatching (prior to 2006, weights at 85 and 90 days were also taken). Similarly the weights of Grey-headed Albatross chicks are measured at 100 and 131 days after hatching (prior to 2006, weights at 90 and 95 days were also taken). Data exist since 1989.

  • 100 nests in designated Adelie and Chinstrap penguin colonies are marked and then regularly monitored. Data are collected on when eggs are laid in each nest, when they hatch, when eggs or chicks are lost, and when chicks become unguarded. Data exist from 1996 onwards. For Adelie penguins, 100 nests in a colony designated A41 was monitored between 1996 and 2002, from 2003 onwards 100 nests in a colony designated A39 were monitored. For Chinstrap penguins, 100 nests in a colony designated A69 were monitored between 1996 and 2015, from 2016 onwards, 100 nests in a colony designated C66 were monitored. No data were collected in the 1997-98, 1999-2000 and 2010-2011 seasons. To calculate the annual hatching date a binomial model was fitted using the proportion of nests containing one or more chicks as the response variable and the date in days after 1 Oct as the explanatory variable. This model was fitted for each species and year separately. The dose.p function in the MASS package in R was used to derive the day when 50% of nests contained one or more chicks to produce the mean hatching date for each species-year combination. Mean laying dates were back-calculated from the mean hatching dates by subtracting the average incubation periods for each species (35 days for Adelies and 36.4 days for chinstraps, which are relatively constant between years). This has been calculated for data from 1996 to 2016.

  • The breeding success (calculated from nest and chick counts) of Macaroni penguins is monitored annually at Bird Island, South Georgia. A transect is used to estimate the incubating nests and chicks hatched in the large colony at Goldcrest Point where counts have been made since 1976. The number of incubating nests and chicks reaching fledging stage in the whole of the smaller colony at Fairy Point are counted and data exist from 1982 onwards.

  • The breeding success (calculated from nest and chick counts) of Gentoo penguins is monitored annually at Bird Island, South Georgia. The number of incubating nests and chicks reaching fledging stage are counted in several Gentoo penguin colonies. Data exist from 1982 onwards.

  • 100 nests in designated Adelie and Chinstrap penguin colonies are marked and then regularly monitored. Data are collected on when eggs are laid in each nest, when they hatch, when eggs or chicks are lost, and when chicks become unguarded. Data exist from 1996 onwards. For Adelie penguins, 100 nests in a colony designated A41 was monitored between 1996 and 2002, from 2003 onwards 100 nests in a colony designated A39 were monitored. For Chinstrap penguins, 100 nests in a colony designated A69 were monitored between 1996 and 2015, from 2016 onwards, 100 nests in a colony designated C66 were monitored. No data were collected in the 1997-98, 1999-2000 and 2010-2011 seasons. To calculate the annual hatching date a binomial model was fitted using the proportion of nests containing one or more chicks as the response variable and the date in days after 1 Oct as the explanatory variable. This model was fitted for each species and year separately. The dose.p function in the MASS package in R was used to derive the day when 50% of nests contained one or more chicks to produce the mean hatching date for each species-year combination. Mean laying dates were back-calculated from the mean hatching dates by subtracting the average incubation periods for each species (35 days for Adelies and 36.4 days for chinstraps, which are relatively constant between years). This has been calculated for data from 1996 to 2016.

  • The Antarctic food webs represent two entire above-belowground communities from Signy Island Reference Sites on Signy Island, one of the South Orkney Islands in the Maritime Antarctic. The two communities are a dry moss community (Antarctic dry tundra) and a wet moss community (Antarctic wet tundra). These two communities were the focus of intensive biological study by personnel from the British Antarctic Survey over the course of a decade in the 1970''s, of which the results were finally compiled into a meta-analysis by Davis (1981). The Jacobians of the dry and wet tundra were calculated by Neutel and Thorne (2014) using the empirical biomass and flow data of the respective systems from Davis'' analysis. The Jacobians represent the interaction strengths of the species in the two food webs, evaluated at equilibrium.