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  • This data was gathered to study the effects of combined environmental stressors of lowered pH and increased temperature on the adult metabolism and larval development of the Antarctic sea urchin, S. neumayeri. Specimens were cultured under the combined environmental stressors of lowered pH (-0.3 and -0.5 pH units) and increased temperature (+2 degrees C). The experiment took place over a two-year period, from June 2009, covering two full reproductive cycles of this species. The dataset is divided into adult and offspring. Data for adult S. neumayeri are given at four-monthly intervals. Values provided include oxygen consumption (umols), whole animal wet and dry mass (g), test diameter and thickness (mm), gonad wet and dry tissue mass (g), AFDM (Ash-Free Dry Mass) (g), CaCO3, and gonad index (GI%). Mean frequencies are also provided for larval development stages (%) for 25-day-old S. neumayeri offspring. These offspring are derived from larval cultures spawned after 6 and 17 months exposure to altered pH and temperature conditions. Postoral arm length measurements for the most advanced larvae is also provided as a metric of skeletal development. Two tables relating to seawater chemistry measurements are also provided. Table 1 displays mean water parameters in the adult S. neumayeri microcosm over the course of the experiment. Supplementary Table 1 gives mean seawater parameters of the S. neumayeri larval cultures derived from parents pre-exposed to low temperature and high temperature seawater controls and lowered carbonate conditions.

  • Biological tissue samples from octopus species collected from the Southern Ocean, James Clark Ross cruise no. JR147/145. A large collection of tissue samples from deep sea and Antarctic target groups had already been collected in previous cruises. The specific objective of this cruise was to target three species of octopus, Pareledone charcoti (peak abundance 100m depth), Pareledone turqueti (peak abundance 100-200m) and Adelieledone polymorpha (peak abundance 250-350m), for the micro-evolution (i.e. population genetics) component of the project. Most of the octopuses were captured with an otter trawl, due to its relatively large sampling area and the fact that it can be trawled quickly (4 knots) which prevents octopuses from swimming out of it.

  • Bottom topography - assessed by swath bathymetry - of the Southern Ocean collected aboard the James Clark Ross (JR145) during the 2005-2006 field season. Bathymetry data was collected to assess its influence on dispersal and gene flow in two Antarctic fishes (Champsocephalus gunnari and Notothenia rossii). Data was collected in the Southern Ocean from Elephant Island, Deception Island, the South Orkney Islands, King George (Potter Cove) and Signy (Borge Bay).

  • Life history and phylogenetic/geographic data were combined with oceanographic data to test models of population structuring by oceanographic processes. The data are solely model outputs; specifically high-resolution flows for the South Georgia region and fish egg and larval distributions from different spawning sites.

  • DNA sequencing data from octopus samples collected in the Southern Ocean. A small tissue sample was taken from the mantle of each octopus and placed immediately in 70 - 80 % ethanol for preservation, in preparation for DNA extraction.

  • Biological fishing samples were collected during multiple cruises in the Southern Ocean between Oct 2002 and Jan 2006. Fishing was undertaken in the area of sub-surface moorings to ground-truth acoustic data being collected. Specifically, RMT (Rectangular Mid-water Trawl) hauls were carried out to learn more about the vertical distribution of plankton, krill, mysids and fish around these particular positions during the day and night time.

  • Morphometric data from octopus species collected in the Southern Ocean. Every octopus was fixed in 5-6% formalin for 4 days, before being heat sealed in a plastic bag containing 4% formalin, and packed for morphometric studies.

  • Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) data from shallow (300m) and deep (1300m) moorings in the Southern Ocean collected between Oct 2002 and Jan 2006. The CTD measured the conductivity of the water (equating to salinity), together with the water temperature and the depth of the buoy. Data were collected by deployment of sub-surface moorings equipped with physical and biological sensor systems. The main buoys with the sensor systems were designed to float 200m below the water surface, to minimise the impact of icebergs while giving good sample coverage for the upper water column. The acoustic instruments were oriented upwards towards the surface and each mooring had 3 monitoring systems on-board: 1) a water column profiler (WCP), 2) an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and 3) a Conductivity/ Temperature/ Depth (CTD) analyser. This work took place as part of a project to: a) quantify the magnitude and timing of short-term, ecologically-significant, intra-annual variability in krill abundance at South Georgia; b) describe the effect of oceanic tides at the two locations; c) test the hypothesis that krill immigration to, and hence abundance at, South Georgia is mediated by influx of cold waters; and d) determine functional responses of predators to short term variations in prey (krill) abundance. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is of vital importance to the South Georgia marine ecosystem providing food for a high proportion of Antarctic wildlife, and is eaten by most animals (seals, whales, birds, fish, squid, penguins).

  • Water Column Profiler (WCP) data collected from shallow (300m) and deep (1300m) moorings in the Southern Ocean between Nov 2004 and April 2005. The WCP estimated the krill biomass using sound waves of 120kHz. Data were collected by deployment of sub-surface moorings equipped with physical and biological sensor systems. The main buoys with the sensor systems were designed to float 200m below the water surface, to minimise the impact of icebergs while giving good sample coverage for the upper water column. The acoustic instruments were oriented upwards towards the surface and each mooring had 3 monitoring systems on-board: 1) a water column profiler (WCP), 2) an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and 3) a Conductivity/ Temperature/ Depth (CTD) analyser. This work took place as part of a project to: a) quantify the magnitude and timing of short-term, ecologically significant, intra-annual variability in krill abundance at South Georgia; b) describe the effect of oceanic tides at the two locations; c) test the hypothesis that krill immigration to, and hence abundance at, South Georgia is mediated by influx of cold waters; and d) determine functional responses of predators to short term variations in prey (krill) abundance. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is of vital importance to the South Georgia marine ecosystem providing food for a high proportion of Antarctic wildlife, and is eaten by most animals (seals, whales, birds, fish, squid, penguins).

  • Fish samples of Champsocephalus gunnari and Notothenia rossii (tissues preserved in ethanol, and otoliths) were collected aboard the James Clark Ross (JR145) during the 2005-2006 field season. Morphometric data, including body length, mass, sex and reproductive condition, were derived from the samples. Between 60-100 adult individuals of each species were collected from each of several locations including: Elephant Island, Deception Island and the South Orkney Islands. Sampling from these regions allows us to test the influence of local hydrology/currents around the Antarctic Peninsula as well as that of larger systems within the Scotia Sea (via comparisons with samples already collected from Shag Rocks and South Georgia).