EARTH SCIENCE > Atmosphere > Atmospheric Winds > Surface Winds

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  • Meteorological data collected on Larsen Ice Shelf including pressure, temperature, wind speed and direction.

  • Surface meteorological data collected at the following British Antarctic Survey stations in Antarctica: Adelaide Island (1962-1976); Deception Island (1959-1967); Faraday/Argentine Islands (1946-1995); Fossil Bluff (1961-2005); Grytviken (1959-1981); Halley (1957 to 2013); Rothera (1976 to 2013); Signy (1956 to 2000). The following meteorological parameters are included in the files: Sea Level Pressure (hPa); Station Level Pressure (hPa); Temperature (Deg C); Wind Speed (knots); Wind Direction (Degrees). Observations were recorded every 3 or six hours for the first part of the record and then at hourly intervals in the later part when electronic measuring systems were introduced in the 1980s and 1990s.

  • This dataset documents the trends and variability in the latitude and strength of the belt of lower-atmosphere westerly winds over the Southern Ocean, referred to as the ''westerly jet''. Time series of annual mean and seasonal diagnostics are available for the period 1979-present, specifically time series of seasonal and annual mean jet latitude and strength. The diagnostics are derived from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim reanalysis (for more information see and Dee et al. (2011)), which is an observationally-constrained reconstruction of atmospheric conditions. The broad characterisation of the westerly winds into these simple diagnostics has been found to be useful for understanding long-term climate change due to contrasting drivers of change and impacts on other aspects of the climate system. This is an index of winds around the full circumference of all longitudes at Southern Hemisphere middle latitudes. The exact latitude depends on the position of the jet at any given time, but on average the jet (the core of the westerlies) is located at approximately 52 deg S.

  • Full meteorological dataset taken from 4-metre mast near to the Clean Air Sector Laboratory (Halley, Antarctica) during the CHABLIS campaign (2001-2006). Measurements include relative humidity, temperature, wind direction and speed.

  • Meteorological variables (wind speed, air temperature and wind direction) were collected using two wind towers. Photogrammetric data were collected using a pole-mounted digital camera and DJI Phantom 3 UAV. LiDAR data collected via terrestrial and airborne laser scanning. Fieldwork carried out at Hintereisferner glacier, in the Oetztal Alps region, Tyrol, Austria, from 1-15 August 2018 by Joshua Chambers, Thomas Smith and Mark Smith. Terrestrial laser scan (TLS) data collected by Rudolf Sailer. Airborne laser scan (ALS) data originally from Open Data Austria, see Sailer et al. (2012). One wind tower recorded for the entire study duration, the second was moved to different plots every ~4 days. Photogrammetric data were collected on 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13 August. TLS scans were split into upper- and lower-glacier, and completed on 3, 7, 12 and 16 August. Data were used to examine the relations between glacier aerodynamic roughness and sampling resolution, and to develop a correction factor for roughness derived from coarser resolution data. Fieldwork was funded by an INTERACT Transnational Access grant awarded to Mark Smith under the European Union H2020 Grant Agreement No. 730938. Joshua Chambers is supported by a NERC PhD studentship (NE/L002574/1). Ivana Stiperski was funded by Austrian Science Fund (FWF) grant T781-N32.

  • Weather data collected between 30th December 2004 and 20th February 2006 as part of the RABID project on Rutford Ice Stream, West Antarctica. Wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and solar radiation data were recorded using an ONSET HOBO AWS (Automatic Weather Station) data logger and sensors. The RABID project employed hot-water drilling techniques, down-hole instrumentation, as well as surface geophysical measurements, to form an integrated programme studying ice dynamics, basal conditions, climate and glacial history. Funding was provided by the UK NERC Antarctic Funding Initiative (AFI).