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Density of the water column

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  • The World Ocean Isopycnal-Level Velocity (WOIL-V) climatology was derived from the United States Navy's Generalised Digital Environmental Model (GDEM) temperature and salinity profiles, using the P-Vector Method. The absolute velocity data have the same horizontal resolution and temporal variation (annual, monthly) as GDEM (T, S) fields. These data have an horizontal resolution of 0.5 degrees ×0.5 degrees, and 222 isopycnal-levels (sigma theta levels) from sigma theta = 22.200 to 27.725 (kg m-3) with the increment delta sigma theta = 0.025 (kg m-3), however in the equatorial zone (5 degrees S – 5 degrees N) they are questionable due to the geostrophic balance being the theoretical base for the P-vector inverse method. The GDEM model, which served as the base for the calculations includes data from 1920s onwards and the WOIL-V will be updated with the same frequency as the GDEM. The climatological velocity field on isopycnal surface is dynamically compatible to the GDEM (T, S) fields and provides background ocean currents for oceanographic and climatic studies, especially in ocean isopycnal modeling. The climatology was prepared by the Department of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School.

  • The Drake Passage is a hydrographic section, occupied almost annually since 1993, consisting of full-depth CTD stations and lowered and shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler measurements. It is occupied annually to detect changes in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and variability of the ocean transport. The standard section includes measurements of the physical properties of the ocean, i.e. temperature, salinity and currents. The Drake Passage section lies on a satellite ground track with the northern end on the south side of Burdwood Bank, south of the Falkland Islands, and the southern end off Elephant Island at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. The data have been collected in months between November and February, since 1993 (with the exception of 1995/96 and 1998/99). Measurements were taken using conductivity temperature depth (CTD) profilers and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs). The Drake Passage provides the link between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, as it constricts the ACC to a narrow geographical region, which makes this the best place to measure its properties. The Drake Passage is a series of sustained observations which are taken to identify small changes in the ACC. The work was initially led by scientists from the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences at Wormley, and more recently by teams from the National Oceanography Centre at Southampton. The main partners have been from NERC's British Antarctic Survey. Data, from the section, are held at the British Oceanographic Data Centre.

  • This dataset contains a variety of hydrographic measurements including temperature, salinity, sound velocity, current speed/ direction and seismic data. Hydrographic profilers provided measurements of temperature, salinity, sound velocity and density. Four mooring stations were also installed as part of this project, with three minilogger chains providing temperature data and four moored ADCPs measuring current veloicty. The project ran from February 2006 to September 2009, however all of the data were collected between 17 April 2007 and 14 May 2007 during two cruises which took place in the Gulf of Cadiz. The research was conducted using two research vessels, the RRS Discovery (cruise D318) and the RV Poseidon (cruise PO350). The RRS Discovery cruise D318 was split into two legs, D318a, which took place between 17 April 2007 and 23 April 2007 and D318b, which took place between 29 April 2007 and 14 May 2007. For the second leg of cruise D318, the RRS Discovery was joined by the RV Poseidon. Hydrographic measurements were taken using a variety of instruments, including expendable bathythermographs (XBT), expendable CTDs (XCTD), conductivity-temperature depth (CTD) profilers, acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP) and VEMCO minilogger chains. Airguns and streamers were used in the recording of the seismic data. The main objectives of the Geophysical Oceanography (GO) project were A) To evaluate and improve new research methods in the developing field of seismic oceanography by exploiting the opportunity of two-ship operations between RSS Discovery and RV Poseidon and B) To study the internal wave field and mixing processes in the Gulf of Cadiz and demonstrate quantitative links between seismic and oceanographic measurements. The cruise was coordinated by Durham Univerity and funded under an EU grant as part of the Framework 6 NEST programme. Eight scientific institutions were involved in the project. These were: the University of Durham, the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL), the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (IFM-GEOMAR), the French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER), the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, the Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the University of Western Brittany and the University of Lisbon. Data from the programme are held at the British Oceanographic Data Centre.

  • The dataset comprises 37 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from across the North Sea and the North East Atlantic Ocean (limit 40W) areas specifically the Fair Isle-Munken, Nolso-Flugga, along the shelf edge to the north and west of Shetland, the standard JONSIS, East Shetland (ES), and northern North Sea (EC) sections. The data were collected during November of 1994. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory.

  • This dataset comprises 258 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, during August - September 1988 from stations covering the southern North Sea (south of 56N). A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the University of Wales, Bangor School of Ocean Sciences as part of the North Sea Project Frontal Process Study.

  • The dataset comprises 23 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from across the Inner Seas off the west coast of Scotland area specifically of Loch Fyne, during November of 1994. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Scottish Office Agriculture Environment and Fisheries Department Aberdeen Marine Laboratory.

  • The dataset comprises 25 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from across the North Sea area specifically in the Scottish coastal zone between Arbroath and Fife Ness, during March and April of 1994. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Scottish Office Agriculture Environment and Fisheries Department Aberdeen Marine Laboratory.

  • The dataset comprises 17 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from across the North Sea area specifically along the east coast of Scotland from the Moray Firth to the Firth of Forth, during September of 1993. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Scottish Office Agriculture and Fisheries Department Aberdeen Marine Laboratory.

  • The dataset comprises 59 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from across the North Sea area specifically the northeast coast, during October of 1993. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Scottish Office Agriculture and Fisheries Department Aberdeen Marine Laboratory.

  • The dataset comprises 48 hydrographic data profiles, collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor package, from across the North Sea area specifically along the Fair Isle-Munken, Nolso-Flugga, JONSIS, East Shetland (ES) and northern North Sea (EC) standard sections, during December of 1993. A complete list of all data parameters are described by the SeaDataNet Parameter Discovery Vocabulary (PDV) keywords assigned in this metadata record. The data were collected by the Scottish Office Agriculture and Fisheries Department Aberdeen Marine Laboratory.