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Carbon

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  • In March 2010, the Scottish CCS (Carbon Capture & Storage) Consortium began an extensive Front End, Engineering and Design (FEED) study to assess what would be required from an engineering, commercial and regulatory, perspective in order to progress the CCS demonstration project at Longannet Power station in Scotland through to construction. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material are available for download here. This section of the report illustrates how the End-to-End CCS chain must be considered as a system as well as separate elements. It builds upon the description of the individual elements contained in Section 3, and captures the development of the End-to-End CCS chain design carried out during FEED. Specifically, this section focuses on the following aspects: Commissioning the system in preparation for operations, as well as decommissioning at the end of the capture and storage period; Operations and maintenance activities; Control; Metering and monitoring; Venting; This section also provides some selected information on the individual CCS chain elements and a summary of the RAM (reliability, availability and maintainability) analysis undertaken during FEED of which one of the key outputs was the anticipated CO2 injection profile for the project. The appropriate summary section from the Feed Close Out Report can be downloaded as a PDF (End to end CCS chain operation.pdf). The main text of the FEED Close Out Report, together with the supporting appendix for this section can be downloaded as PDF files. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccs/ukccscomm_prog/feed/scottish_power/ccs_chain/ccs_chain.aspx

  • During 2010-11, as part of the Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) Demonstration Competition process, E.ON undertook a Front End Engineering Design (FEED) study for the development of a commercial scale CCS demonstration plant at Kingsnorth in Kent, South East England. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material is available for download here. This chapter contains design philosophy documents which were produced to ensure a common approach to the design of all aspects of the CCS project, addressing overall project lifecycle and the interface between the Carbon Capture Plant and the Power Station. Some of the key issues concerning the design and integration of a CCS development are: Power plants have been designed for many years to operate flexibly in response to the demands of the electricity network. The CCS plant technology is closer to process plant technology which is not usually designed for such flexible operation, and this will provide a key challenge during the detailed design process to provide the required flexibility of operation; Assessment of various cooling technologies for the power station and carbon capture plant shows that direct water cooling is the Best Available Technology in terms of Environmental Impact; Significant parts of the existing cooling water infrastructure can be re-used; There is potential to advantageously interface steam and cooling systems between the power plant and CCS plant; Venting, and the consequent cooling, of CO2 for pressure relief or operational reasons raises issues with lack of buoyancy and dispersion which require significant further work. Further supporting documents for chapter 4 of the Key Knowledge Reference Book can be downloaded. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccs/ukccscomm_prog/feed/e_on_feed_/project_design/project_design.aspx

  • In March 2010, the Scottish CCS (Carbon Capture & Storage) Consortium began an extensive Front End, Engineering and Design (FEED) study to assess what would be required from an engineering, commercial and regulatory, perspective in order to progress the CCS demonstration project at Longannet Power station in Scotland through to construction. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material are available for download here. This section of the report aims to inform potential developers of CCS of the impact of risks on the design of large-scale CCS. It discusses the ScottishPower CCS Consortium approach to risk management, looking particularly at the identification and mitigation of specific areas of risks during FEED and the mitigating actions required for the major residual risks. The section covers five key areas: Overview of the risk assessment process through FEED, including mitigation measures, major movement of the Top 50 risks on the Risk Register, and current active risks; Mitigation strategies for major project risks; Mitigation strategies for those risks with the potential to cause significant delay to the Overall Project Programme; Allocation and insurability of risks; Integrity and risk assessment of existing plant to be integrated; From the outset of FEED, risk management was co-ordinated by the Risk Workstream. The Risk Workstream included representatives of each of the Consortium Partners and Aker Clean Carbon. The Risk Workstream had a remit to capture, codify and report on progress with risk management throughout the study. The management of the risks themselves remained with the risk owners. The Consortium's risk management strategy was based on the provision of a cross-Consortium, over-arching risk management framework. This was developed to: Provide visibility of the Consortium's risk exposure Make best use of the Consortium Partners' risk management experience Facilitate the assessment of the impact of changes within the scope of one Partner's risk profile to the others Encourage the identification of risks at Partner interfaces Provide consistent risk reporting across the Consortium in line with agreed requirements Each Consortium Partner was responsible for reporting monthly on their risks to the Consortium risk lead, who in turn collated the Consortium Partner updates and reported the overall Consortium risk status to the Consortium Management Office and DECC to show how the total risk value changed over the course of FEED. The appropriate summary section from the Feed Close Out Report can be downloaded as a PDF (Risk management.pdf). The main text of the FEED Close Out Report, together with the supporting appendix for this section can be downloaded as PDF files. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccs/ukccscomm_prog/feed/scottish_power/risk/risk.aspx

  • A dataset of DOC and DBC concentrations from 78 sampling locations in South American rivers (surface waters).

  • In March 2010, the Scottish CCS (Carbon Capture & Storage) Consortium began an extensive Front End, Engineering and Design (FEED) study to assess what would be required from an engineering, commercial and regulatory, perspective in order to progress the CCS demonstration project at Longannet Power station in Scotland through to construction. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material are available for download here. This section of the report contains the cost estimate for the End-to-End CCS chain for the purposes of providing potential developers of CCS projects with indicative cost information regarding capital expenditure, operating costs and decommissioning/ abandonment costs. One of the key objectives of the FEED phase of the UKCCS Demonstration Competition was to increase the cost certainty for the overall project. During development of the Outline Solution, costs were estimated to an accuracy of -30% to +50%. Through the design and project development across the various Consortium workstreams (as outlined in the previous sections of this report), it has been possible to refine this accuracy and increase the cost certainty of the indicative core capital costs to approximately -12%/+15% accuracy. The appropriate summary section from the Feed Close Out Report can be downloaded as a PDF (CCS project costs.pdf). The main text of the FEED Close Out Report, together with the supporting appendix for this section can be downloaded as PDF files. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccs/ukccscomm_prog/feed/scottish_power/ccs_costs/ccs_costs.aspx

  • In March 2010, the Scottish CCS (Carbon Capture & Storage) Consortium began an extensive Front End, Engineering and Design (FEED) study to assess what would be required from an engineering, commercial and regulatory, perspective in order to progress the CCS demonstration project at Longannet Power station in Scotland through to construction. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material are available for download here. This section of the report provides details on the organisation and management of the design as well as key design information for the End-to-End CCS chain. This includes the following: Organisation of the design teams; The End-to-End Basis of Design; The design life; The End-to-End CCS chain process; Piping and instrumentation diagrams; Plant and site layout drawings for the various sites; Equipment; Plant and equipment specifications; Subsurface engineering design reports; No attempt has been made to generalise design data. All of the design information presented is specific to the ScottishPower Consortium Project and has been presented to provide an insight into the development of the End-to-End CCS solution. The FEED design study was based on the Outline Solution developed by the Consortium prior to FEED. The Outline Solution was a conceptual design for the End-to-End CCS chain that was considered to be technically feasible within the constraints of the knowledge available at the time. It included a series of optioneering studies to identify the preferred design for this particular project. During FEED, the Outline Solution design was developed in greater detail to reduce the cost and technical uncertainty, and consequently reduce the financial, programme and technical risks prior to commencing the implementation stage of the project. It must be stressed that a FEED study is carried out to develop a design to the degree that the technical and programme risks are reduced to the agreed limits to better inform the project cost estimate. The current status is that the design has been progressed as far as is practicable within the time and cost constraints of the FEED study. Specifications and datasheets for major equipment have been developed in order that they can be issued to potential suppliers during the implementation phase of the project. The FEED study identified further activities that cannot be performed at the FEED stage of the project but which have been recorded as actions for further investigation during the implementation stage. The FEED study has advanced the development of the application of CCS technology considerably. Though research and conceptual studies are essential to the development of any new technology, they cannot identify many of the difficult design issues that are identified and addressed during a FEED study. Similarly the progress from FEED to the implementation phase is expected to present further challenges for a project of this novel nature. However, the advantage of a FEED study is that the main issues that could present high cost or programme difficulties or even potential 'show stoppers' should already have been identified and, where possible, addressed. Key decisions and design changes taken during the FEED study are explained in Section 11 of the report. The FEED study indicates that CCS remains technically feasible. The appropriate summary section from the Feed Close Out Report can be downloaded as a PDF (Design.pdf). The main text of the FEED Close Out Report, together with the supporting appendix for this section can be downloaded as PDF files.

  • During 2010-11, as part of the Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) Demonstration Competition process, E.ON undertook a Front End Engineering Design (FEED) study for the development of a commercial scale CCS demonstration plant at Kingsnorth in Kent, South East England. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material is available for download here. This chapter presents the results of studies into the undersea storage reservoir for CO2, in the Lower Bunter sandstone of the depleted Hewett natural gas field, the design recommendations for new wells and recommendations for abandonment of existing wells. The study addresses the following areas; Storage Reservoir integrity and capacity; Construction and completion of wells; CO2 properties and injectivity; Abandonment of existing and new wells; Monitoring; Hazard Identification (HAZID) and Risk Assessment. Some of the key aspects of the Wells and Storage technical design are; Wells that have already been abandoned using conventional methods pose a risk of future leakage to the surface and thereby compromising the integrity of the CO2 store; Data acquisition can be difficult: ensure that all required data sets are identified and make requests as early as possible to ensure quality data is obtained resistant standards; The CO2 equation of state and phase diagram is paramount in designing the injection process. Temperature and pressure of the CO2 must be carefully specified to avoid uncontrolled condensation or vaporisation; Many standard components and materials used in the offshore industry are suitable for use in CO2 flowing regime injection applications. Particular attention must be paid to corrosion resistance and longevity in a CO2 environment; For drilling injection wells into a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir, the principal challenge is drilling into low pore pressures, whilst minimising formation damage. Further supporting documents for Chapter 7 of the Key Knowledge Reference Book can be downloaded. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccs/ukccscomm_prog/feed/e_on_feed_/storage/storage.aspx

  • During 2010-11, as part of the Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) Demonstration Competition process, E.ON undertook a Front End Engineering Design (FEED) study for the development of a commercial scale CCS demonstration plant at Kingsnorth in Kent, South East England. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material is available for download here. This chapter presents the FEED stage Capture and Compression plant technical design. The 'Design Basis for CO2 Recovery Plant' lists the design parameters relating to the capture plant site, the flue gas to be treated, the utilities available, the required life and availability of the plant, and other constraints to be complied with in the capture plant, dehydration and compression design. The details of the processes of capture, compression, and dehydration are best visualised on the Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs) which show the process flows described above together with additional detail of coolers, pumps, and other plant items. Separate PFDs are provided for the capture plant, the compression plant, and the dehydration plant to show the complete flue gas and CO2 flows. Some of the key aspects of the technical design of the Capture and Compression plant are; There are two separate water circuits shown in the quencher with separate extractions of excess water. These have been separated because the recovered quench water is of good enough quality for re-use on the power station, whilst the deep FGD waste water is sent to the water treatment plant; Molecular sieves have been selected as the most appropriate equipment for dehydration of the CO2 prior to pipeline transportation; With the particular layout constraints of the Kingsnorth site, a split layout of the absorption and regeneration equipment is preferred over the compact layout. Further supporting documents for chapter 5 of the Key Knowledge Reference Book can be downloaded. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccs/ukccscomm_prog/feed/e_on_feed_/technical/technical.aspx

  • During 2010-11, as part of the Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) Demonstration Competition process, E.ON undertook a Front End Engineering Design (FEED) study for the development of a commercial scale CCS demonstration plant at Kingsnorth in Kent, South East England. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material is available for download here. This Key Knowledge Reference Book is the result of the early stages of a Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) study to add a post-combustion Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) facility to a new supercritical coal fired power plant at Kingsnorth following the award of a FEED contract with the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) in March 2010. This study constitutes the first phase of a 3-phase approach to FEED adopted by E.ON UK. The Kingsnorth CCS Project consists of two 800MW power generating units at Kingsnorth power station, a 300MW (net) post combustion carbon capture plant integrated into the power plant with associated dehydration and compression facilities, a 36inch pipeline for transportation of CO2 to the Hewett gas field in the southern North Sea and a new platform at this field with associated injection facilities and wells. The Key Knowledge Reference Book is publicly available to all CCS project developers and other interested parties to ensure the lessons learned from this FEED are disseminated as widely as possible to advance the roll-out of Carbon Capture and Storage. This Key Knowledge Reference Book comprises information provided in the following structure: Chapter: 1 Executive Summary. 2 Content. 3 Table of Acronyms. 4 Project Design. 5 Technical Design - Carbon Capture and Compression Plant. 6 Technical Design - Pipeline and Platform. 7 Technical Design - Wells and Storage. 8 Health and Safety. 9 Environment and Consents. 10 Project Management Reports. Summary commentary on each of the chapters is provided to give both context to the information supplied and to pull out key areas of learning in each section. The Key Knowledge Reference Book is available for download and supporting materials for each chapter are available. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccs/ukccscomm_prog/feed/e_on_feed_/executive_summ/executive_summ.aspx

  • During 2010-11, as part of the Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) Demonstration Competition process, E.ON undertook a Front End Engineering Design (FEED) study for the development of a commercial scale CCS demonstration plant at Kingsnorth in Kent, South East England. The study yielded invaluable knowledge and the resulting material is available for download here. This chapter presents the Environment and Consents Reports produced during the current FEED stage. One of the key objectives of the FEED study was to develop information across the project chain, from CO2 generation to storage in sufficient detail to enable production of applications for environmental consents. A Consents Philosophy was generated upon commencement of the FEED to develop a programme of work to achieve this objective, and identified the following groups of consents: Power and capture plant: 1989 Electricity Act - Section 36; Onshore pipeline: 1990 Town and Country Planning Act; Offshore Pipeline; Offshore Platform; Storage Consents. Some keys aspects of the FEED Consents study are: There were significant uncertainties at the outset of the project regarding the types of consent required. This was a consequence of the planning consent for Kingsnorth Units 5 and 6 having already been submitted in 2006, new government policy and draft regulatory guidance, and ongoing government consultations on regulatory issues; Many of these issues were resolved, enabling development of consent applications for the integrated power and capture plant and onshore and offshore CO2 pipeline. However in some cases, particularly for the offshore platform and storage, uncertainty remained throughout the project. In these instances the deliverable was an interpretation of the regulatory requirements that will need to be reviewed and taken into account to obtain consents during subsequent stages of the project. Further supporting documents for chapter 9 of the Key Knowledge Reference Book can be downloaded. Note this dataset is a duplicate of the reports held at the National Archive which can be found at the following link - http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20121217150421/http://decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/emissions/ccs/ukccscomm_prog/feed/e_on_feed_/environment_/environment_.aspx