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  • Topsoil moisture data - gravimetric moisture content (%). Data is representative of 0 - 15 cm soil depth. Cores from 1098 plots within 256 1km by 1km squares were measured in 1998 and 2614 plots within 591 1km x 1km squares were analysed in 2007 across Great Britain. See Emmett et al. 2010 for further details of sampling and methods (http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5201/1/CS_UK_2007_TR3%5B1%5D.pdf). Estimates of mean values within selected habitats and parent material characteristics across GB were made using Countryside Survey (CS) data from 1998 and 2007 using a mixed model approach. The estimated means of habitat/parent material combinations are modelled on dominant habitat and parent material characteristics derived from the Land Cover Map 2007 and Parent Material Model 2009, respectively. The parent material characteristics used were those which minimised AIC in the model (see Data documentation). Please see Scott, 2008 for further details of similar statistical analysis (http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5202/1/CS_UK_2007_TR4%5B1%5D.pdf). Areas, such as urban and littoral rock, are not sampled by CS and therefore have no associated data. Also, in some circumstances sample sizes for particular habitat / parent material combinations were insufficient to estimate mean values. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/8db84900-5fdb-43be-a607-e56c843d9b87

  • Countryside Survey topsoil pH and bulk density (g cm-3) data is representative of 0 - 15 cm soil depth. Topsoil pH was measured using 10g of field moist soil with 25ml de-ionised water giving a ratio of soil to water of 1:2.5 by weight; bulk density was estimated by making detailed weight measurements throughout the soil processing procedure. For topsoil pH and bulk density data, a total of 2614 cores from 591 1km x 1km squares across Great Britain were collected and analysed in 2007. Please see Emmett et al. 2010 for further details of sampling and methods (http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5201/1/CS_UK_2007_TR3%5B1%5D.pdf). Estimates of mean values within selected habitats and parent material characteristics across GB were made using CS data from 1978, 1998 and 2007 using a mixed model approach. Please see Scott, 2008 for further details of similar statistical analysis (http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5202/1/CS_UK_2007_TR4%5B1%5D.pdf). The estimated means of habitat /parent material combinations using 2007 data are modelled on dominant habitat and parent material characteristics derived from the Land Cover Map 2007 and Parent Material Model 2009, respectively. The parent material characteristic used was that which minimised AIC in each model (see Dataset Documentation). The Countryside Survey looks at a range of physical, chemical and biological properties of the topsoil from a representative sample of habitats across the UK. Countryside Survey soils data are freely available under licence from the Environmental Information Data Centre catalogue. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/5dd624a9-55c9-4cc0-b366-d335991073c7

  • This dataset models bee nectar plant richness across Great Britain (GB). It uses counts of bee nectar plants (using a list agreed with experts) in Countryside Survey area vegetation plots in 2007 and extrapolates to 1km squares across GB using a generalised additive mixed model. Co-variables used in the model are Broad Habitat (the dominant broad habitat of the 1km square), air temperature, nitrogen deposition, precipitation and altitude. This data provides a metric of the Natural Capital associated with pollination, although to measure the service itself you would require additional datasets. Understanding the distribution of bee nectar plants does provide valuable information on the potential distribution of pollinators and hence pollination. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/623a38dd-66e8-42e2-b49f-65a15d63beb5

  • Topsoil nutrient data - total nitrogen (N) concentration (%), C:N ratio and Olsen-Phosphorus (mg/kg). Data is representative of 0 - 15 cm soil depth. Cores from 256 1km x 1km squares across Great Britain were analysed in 2007. For total N concentration (and therefore C:N ratio), a total of 1024 cores were analysed, and for Olsen-P, a total of 1054 cores were analysed. See Emmett et al. 2010 for further details of sampling and methods (http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5201/1/CS_UK_2007_TR3%5B1%5D.pdf). Estimates of mean values within selected habitats and parent material characteristics across GB were made using Countryside Survey (CS) data from 1978, 1998 and 2007 using a mixed model approach. The estimated means of habitat/parent material combinations are modelled on dominant habitat and parent material characteristics derived from the Land Cover Map 2007 and Parent Material Model 2009, respectively. The parent material characteristic used was that which minimised AIC in each model (see Dataset Documentation). Please see Scott, 2008 for further details of similar statistical analysis (http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5202/1/CS_UK_2007_TR4%5B1%5D.pdf). Areas, such as urban and littoral rock, are not sampled by CS and therefore have no associated data. Also, in some circumstances sample sizes for particular habitat / parent material combinations were insufficient to estimate mean values. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/7055965b-7fe5-442b-902d-63193cbe001c

  • This dataset presents estimates of mean values within selected habitats and parent material characteristics made using Countryside Survey (CS) data from 1978, 1998 and 2007 using a mixed model approach (see Scott, 2008 for further details of similar statistical analysis - http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5202/1/CS_UK_2007_TR4%5B1%5D.pdf ). Countryside Survey topsoil carbon data is representative of 0-15 cm soil depth and includes Loss-on-ignition (%), Carbon concentration (g kg-1) and Carbon density (t ha-1). A total of 2614 cores from 591 1km x 1km squares across Great Britain were collected and analysed in 2007 (see Emmett et al. 2010 for further details of sampling and methods http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5201/1/CS_UK_2007_TR3%5B1%5D.pdf ). Loss-on-ignition (LOI) was determined by combustion of 10g dry soil at 375 deg C for 16 hours; carbon concentration was estimated by multiplying LOI by a factor of 0.55, and carbon density was estimated by combining carbon concentration with bulk density estimates. The estimated means of habitat/parent material combinations using 2007 data are modelled on dominant habitat and parent material characteristics derived from the Land Cover Map 2007 and Parent Material Model 2009, respectively. The parent material characteristic used was that which minimised AIC in each model (see Supporting Information). Areas, such as urban and littoral rock, are not sampled by CS and therefore have no associated data. Also, in some circumstances sample sizes for particular habitat/parent material combinations were insufficient to estimate mean values. The Countryside Survey looks at a range of physical, chemical and biological properties of the topsoil from a representative sample of habitats across the UK. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/9e4451f8-23d3-40dc-9302-73e30ad3dd76

  • Topsoil microbe data - Bacteria. Data is representative of 0 - 15 cm soil depth and includes bacterial community structure as assessed by ordination scores, Shannon diversity index and Simpson diversity index. Over 1000 samples from 233 1km x 1km squares across Great Britain were sampled in 2007 and analysed. See Emmett et al. 2010 for further details of sampling and Griffiths et al. 2011 for further details of methods. Estimates of mean values within selected habitats and parent material characteristics across GB were made using Countryside Survey (CS) data from 2007 using a mixed model approach. The estimated means of habitat/parent material combinations using 2007 data are modelled on dominant habitat and parent material characteristics derived from the Land Cover Map 2007 and Parent Material Model 2009, respectively. The parent material characteristic used was that which minimised AIC in each model (see dataset documentation). Please see Scott, 2008 for further details of similar statistical analysis. Areas, such as urban and littoral rock, are not sampled by CS and therefore have no associated data. Also, in some circumstances sample sizes for particular habitat/parent material combinations were insufficient to estimate mean values. References: Emmett, B.A., Frogbrook, Z.L., Chamberlain P.M., Griffiths R., Pickup R., Poskitt, J., Reynolds B., Rowe E., Rowland P., Spurgeon D., Wilson J., Wood, C.M. (2008). Countryside Survey Technical Report No.03/07: Soils Manual. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5201/1/CS_UK_2007_TR3%5B1%5D.pdf Griffiths, R.I.; Thomson, B.C.; James, P.; Bell, T.; Bailey, M.; Whiteley, A.S. (2011). The bacterial biogeography of British soils. Environmental Microbiology, 13 (6). 1642-1654. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02480.x Scott, W.A. (2008). CS Technical Report No.4/07: Statistical Report. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5202/1/CS_UK_2007_TR4%5B1%5D.pdf Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/53210c27-87fc-46e4-a3d6-e731003dc541

  • Countryside Survey topsoil invertebrate data is representative of 0 - 8 cm soil depth and includes Total catch, Mite:Springtail ratio, Number of broad taxa and Shannon diversity. For invertebrate data, a total of 947 cores from 256 1km x 1km squares across Great Britain were analysed in 2007. Please see Emmett et al. 2010 for further details of sampling and methods (http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5201/1/CS_UK_2007_TR3%5B1%5D.pdf ). Estimates of mean values within selected habitats and parent material characteristics across GB were made using CS data from 1978, 1998 and 2007 using a mixed model approach. Please see Scott, 2008 for further details of similar statistical analysis (http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/5202/1/CS_UK_2007_TR4%5B1%5D.pdf ). The estimated means of habitat /parent material combinations using 2007 data are modelled on dominant habitat and parent material characteristics derived from the Land Cover Map 2007 and Parent Material Model 2009, respectively. The parent material characteristic used was that which minimised AIC in each model (see Supporting Information). Areas, such as urban and littoral rock, are not sampled by CS and therefore have no associated data. Also, in some circumstances sample sizes for particular habitat / parent material combinations were insufficient to estimate mean values. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/f19de821-a436-4b28-95f6-b7287ef0bf15

  • This web map service (WMS) depicts estimates of mean values of soil bacteria, invertebrates, carbon, nutrients and pH within selected habitats and parent material characteristics across GB . Estimates were made using CS data using a mixed model approach. The estimated means of habitat/parent material combinations using 2007 data are modelled on dominant habitat and parent material characteristics derived from the Land Cover Map 2007 and Parent Material Model 2009, respectively. Bacteria data is representative of 0 - 15 cm soil depth and includes bacterial community structure as assessed by ordination scores. Invertebrate data is representative of 0 - 8 cm soil depth and includes Total catch, Mite:Springtail ratio, Number of broad taxa and Shannon diversity. Gravimetric moisture content (%) data is representative of 0 - 15 cm soil depth Carbon data is representative of 0-15 cm soil depth and includes Loss-on-ignition (%), Carbon concentration (g kg-1) and Carbon density (t ha-1). Loss-on-ignition was determined by combustion of 10g dry soil at 375 deg C for 16 hours; carbon concentration was estimated by multiplying LOI by a factor of 0.55, and carbon density was estimated by combining carbon concentration with bulk density estimates. Nutrient data is representative of 0 - 15 cm soil depth and includes total nitrogen (N) concentration (%), C:N ratio and Olsen-Phosphorus (mg/kg). pH and bulk density (g cm-3) data is representative of 0 - 15 cm soil depth. Topsoil pH was measured using 10g of field moist soil with 25ml de-ionised water giving a ratio of soil to water of 1:2.5 by weight; bulk density was estimated by making detailed weight measurements throughout the soil processing procedure. Areas, such as urban and littoral rock, are not sampled by CS and therefore have no associated data. Also, in some circumstances sample sizes for particular habitat/parent material combinations were insufficient to estimate mean values.