The GEBCO Grid is a global terrain model for oceans and land at 30 arc-second intervals which was developed and first released in 2009 by the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) as GEBCO 08. The current release is GEBCO 2014, released in December 2014 and updated in March 2015. GEBCO is an international group of experts who work on the development of a range of bathymetric (accurate mapping of the sea floor) data sets and data products. The bathymetric portion of the grid is largely based on a database of ship-track soundings with interpolation between soundings guided by satellite-derived gravity data. Data sets developed by other methods are also included where they improve the grid. The land portion of the grid is largely based on the US Geological Survey's SRMT30 data set, developed with data from the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM). For the area around Antarctica, the land data are taken from the Bedmap2 data set. The grid is accompanied by a Source Identifier (SID) Grid which identifies which cells in the GEBCO Grid are based on soundings or existing grids and which have been interpolated. The data sets are updated as new bathymetric compilations are made available. Both grids are freely available to download, in netCDF; data GeoTiff and Esri ASCII raster formats, from the web. Free software is available for viewing and accessing data from the grids in netCDF and ASCII data formats. The grids are also included as part of the GEBCO Digital Atlas DVD.
This data set consists of a bathymetric grid derived from multibeam bathymetry data from cruise JC071. The bathymetric grid was created by gridding the cleaned raw multibeam data from JC071 at 1/64 arc-minute intervals using a nearneighbour gridding algorithm from the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) software system. The data set covers an approximate one degree square with the minimum and maximum longitude and latitude co-ordinates: 17.016667W-16.216667W; 48.78333N-49.28333N. This is located in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean area. The data were collected from 7th-8th May 2012 using an EM120 Multibeam Echo-sounder. The cruise was part of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP): sustained ocean observation project. The bathymetry data were collected on an opportunistic basis during the cruise. The cruise was operated by the National Oceanography Centre (NOC), equipment operated by National Marine Facilities Sea Systems. The bathymetric grid was created by BODC for contributing to the EMODnet High Resolution Seafloor Mapping (HRSM) Project.
As part of the the CHIMNEY project (NERC grant NE/N016130/1), multibeam bathymetry data were collected during RRS James Cook cruise JC152 to a subsea chimney structure in the northern North Sea around Scanner Pockmark in August-September 2017. Multibeam data were acquired using a Kongsberg EM-710 multibeam echosounder and processed by the JC152 Science Party. In conjunction with seismic profile data acquired on the same cruise, these data will help scientists understand the surface and internal structure and origin of the chimney structure. This will facilitate estimation of the permeability of the chimney and its surroundings, and enable leakage pathways to be determined. The potential for past oil and gas reservoirs and saline aquifers to be used as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) reservoirs of atmospheric CO2 can subsequently be explored. The safety of storing CO2 in such reservoirs is dependent on fully exploring the risks of any leakage via such chimney structures, which the CHIMNEY project will investigate. CHIMNEY is funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), and involves scientists from the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton and the University of Edinburgh. Investigators will work closely with project partners GEOMAR, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, CGG and Applied Acoustics. The project is complementary to the EU-funded Horizon 2020 project: Strategies for Environmental Monitoring of Marine Carbon Capture and Storage (STEMM-CCS).
The data set consists of digital bathymetric contours taken from the International Bathymetric Chart of the Mediterranean (IBCM) chart series. Most of the IBCM sheets depict contours at depths at 0m (coastline), 20m, 50m, 100m, and 200m, and at 200m intervals thereafter, although the actual contours displayed vary slightly from sheet to sheet. The data set is included in the GEBCO Digital Atlas (GDA). Through the GDA software interface the IBCM bathymetric contours can be exported in ASCII or shapefile format. The 10 sheets of the IBCM chart series are on a Mercator Projection at a scale of 1:1 million (at 38 N). The Black Sea is included at a scale of 1:2 million. The IBCM (1st Edition) chart series was published by the Head Department of Navigation and Oceanography of the USSR Ministry of Defence, St. Petersburg, under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO 1981. The bathymetric contours and coastlines from the IBCM sheets were digitised. Error checking and quality control work on the data set was carried out at BODC. The digital data set was first made available in 1988.
The General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) Digital Atlas (GDA) contains global bathymetric data sets, consisting of the latest versions of GEBCO’s global gridded bathymetric data sets; global bathymetric contour and accompanying trackline control data sets; bathymetric contours and coastlines from the First Edition of the International Bathymetric Chart of the Mediterranean (IBCM); a set of digital global coastlines based on the World Vector Shoreline data set (coastlines south of 60S have been removed) at a range of scales from 1:43 million to 1:250,000; the SCAR coastline of Antarctica (version 3.0) at a range of scales from 1:30 million to 1:250,000; and a digital set of geographically referenced feature names including the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)/Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Gazetteer of Geographic Names of Undersea Features. The GEBCO dataset has global coverage and was first released in 1994. The contents of the GDA are updated periodically to include new versions of GEBCO’s bathymetric grids. The GDA is distributed on DVD and includes full documentation and a software interface for viewing and accessing the data sets.
The data set consists of bathymetric contours, at 100m intervals, from a depth of 100m to 5000m. The data were digitised from two charts of the Northeast Atlantic compiled by geoscientists at the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (IOS), Wormley, Surrey and published by the UK Hydrographic Office, Taunton. Admiralty Chart C6566: Bathymetry of the northeast Atlantic (IOS Sheet 1) - 'Reykjanes Ridge and Rockall Plateau' by A.S. Laughton, D.G. Roberts & P.M. Hunter published in February 1982 and covering the area (47° to 64°N, 13° to 37°W). Admiralty Chart C6567: Bathymetry of the northeast Atlantic (IOS Sheet 2) - 'Continental Margin around the British Isles' by D.G. Roberts, P.M. Hunter & A.S. Laughton published in February 1977 and covering the area (47° to 64°N, 6°E to 18°W). The data set is included in the Centenary Edition of the GEBCO Digital Atlas (GDA) as sheet G.02. Please note that within the GDA data set some areas covered by sheets IOS sheets 1 and 2 have been replaced by higher resolution data sets. Through the GDA software interface the data may be exported in ASCII or shapefile format.
The General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) One Minute Grid is a global terrain model for land and sea at one arc-minute intervals. The grid is largely based on the bathymetric contours contained in the Centenary Edition of the GEBCO Digital Atlas, existing grids are used in some areas. The land areas are based on the Global Land One-km Base Elevation (GLOBE) Project data set. The grid was originally released in 2003 and updated in 2008 to include data from the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO), for the region north of 64N and also updates for shallower water regions off India, the Korean Peninsula and around South Afriaca, using data extracted from Electronic Navigation Charts (ENCs). The grid is available to download, in netCDF format, for free from the internet. Free software is available for viewing and accessing data from the grid in netCDF and ASCII. This includes an option to export the grid in an ASCII form suitable for conversion to an ESRI raster. The grid is also included in the GEBCO Digital Atlas DVD. It is not intended to make any further updates to this data set. In 2009, GEBCO released a new bathymetric grid, the GEBCO_08 Grid. This is a global terrain model at 30 arc-second intervals. It is largely based on a database of ship-track soundings with interpolation between soundings guided by satellite derived-gravity data.
The GEBCO_2019 Grid is a global continuous terrain model for ocean and land with a spatial resolution of 15 arc seconds. The grid uses as a ‘base’ Version 1 of the SRTM15_plus data set (Sandwell et al). This data set is a fusion of land topography with measured and estimated seafloor topography. It is largely based on version 11 of SRTM30_plus (5). Included on top of this base grid are gridded bathymetric data sets developed by the four Regional Centers of The Nippon Foundation-GEBCO Seabed 2030 Project, and from a number of international and national data repositories and regional mapping initiatives. The GEBCO_2019 Grid represents all data within the 2019 compilation. The compilation of the GEBCO_2019 Grid was carried out at the Seabed 2030 Global Center, hosted at the National Oceanography Centre, UK, with the aim of producing a seamless global terrain model. The majority of the compilation was done using the 'remove-restore' procedure (Smith and Sandwell, 1997; Becker, Sandwell and Smith, 2009 and Hell and Jakobsson, 2011). This is a two stage process of computing the difference between the new data and the ‘base’ grid and then gridding the difference and adding the difference back to the existing ‘base’ grid. The aim is to achieve a smooth transition between the 'new' and 'base' data sets with the minimum of perturbation of the existing base data set. The data sets supplied in the form of complete grids (primarily areas north of 60N and south of 50S) were included using feather blending techniques from GlobalMapper software. The GEBCO_2019 Grid has been developed through the Nippon Foundation-GEBCO Seabed 2030 Project. This is a collaborative project between the Nippon Foundation of Japan and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO). It aims to bring together all available bathymetric data to produce the definitive map of the world ocean floor by 2030 and make it available to all. Funded by the Nippon Foundation, the four Seabed 2030 Regional Centers include the Southern Ocean - hosted at the Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany; South and West Pacific Ocean - hosted at the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand; Atlantic and Indian Oceans - hosted at the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, USA; Arctic and North Pacific Oceans - hosted at Stockholm University, Sweden and the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping at the University of New Hampshire, USA).
A bathymetric and topographic compilation of the South Sandwich Islands Volcanic Arc (55.1 S - 61.9 S, 24 W - 32 W) constructed in 2014, comprising multiple data sources (see lineage). The data are available as a 200m resolution GeoTIFF grid of elevation data. The bathymetric compilation was constructed in ArcGIS 10.0 using a hierarchical system of data priority, gridded using the Topogrid function and cleaned using both manual and semi-automated methods. This was then merged with terrestrial elevations constructed from cleaned raw ASTER GDEM grids supplemented by coastlines and form-lines taken from archival sketch-maps to produce a full hypsometric elevation model. The dataset was compiled as part of the Geological Long Term Mapping and Survey component of the British Antarctic Survey and forms the basis of a map within the BAS GEOMAP 2 series (see references).
This dataset consists of geophysical and underway measurements collected on FS Meteor Cruise M115 . The cruise ran from 01 April to 28 April 2015 from Kingston, Jamaica to Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe, collecting data within the Cayman Trough. Swath bathymetry data were collected using a ship-fitted Kongsberg Simrad EM122 multi-beam deep ocean echo sounder, with data collected during the cruise along specific profiles with the aim of filling gaps in existing coverage acquired by RRS James Cook cruise JC044. A total of 170 Ocean-bottom seismograph deployments were made at various stations and depths throughout the duration of the cruise, of which 55 were National Environmental Research Council funded. Gravity data were acquired port-to-port using a Micro-G/LaCoste-Romberg air-sea gravimeter (S-40) mounted on a gyro-stabilised platform, which ran throughout the duration of the cruise. This cruise formed the field component of NERC Discovery Science project ‘Crustal accretion and transform margin evolution at ultraslow spreading rates’ which ran between March 2015 and June 2018. It’s aims were: 1) To study the structure and lithology of the crust at the Mt Dent oceanoc core complex (OCC) on the Mid‐Cayman Spreading Center (MCSC) and determine the relationship between this and the adjacent volcanic domain that also hosts hydrothermal vents and; 2) To investigate how the crust changes as it cools and ages as it spreads away from the ridge axis. The Discovery Science project was composed of Standard Grant reference NE/K011162/1. The project was funded from 23 March 2015 to 30 June 2018, and was led by Professor Christine Peirce (Durham University, Earth Sciences). Data have been received by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC), archived, and are available on request from the BODC enquiries team.