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Atmospheric Conditions

34 record(s)

 

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From 1 - 10 / 34
  • This dataset comprises observations of snowline from the Snow Survey of Great Britain (SSGB) at 140 sites across Scotland . Daily observations were made between 1945 and 2007. Observations were made by a ground observer who looked out from a given location at 0900 GMT each day and noted the elevation at which snow cover was greater than 50%. The initial aim was to 'secure representative data relating to the occurrence of snow cover at different altitudes in the various upland districts over the period October to June'. The data were collated by the British Glaciological Society until 1954 and thereafter by the Met Office. It has been transcribed from paper records held in the Met Office archives in Edinburgh. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/caf989a5-82d7-4db7-b6ff-c0475fdae07e

  • This data resource consists of two files: (a) 1x1 km resolution Average Accumulated Exceedance (AAE) data summarising the exceedances of acidity critical loads for eight habitats; (b) 1x1 km resolution AAE data summarising the exceedances of nutrient nitrogen critical loads for thirteen habitats. The data provide information on the amount of excess acid or nitrogen deposition above the critical load values set to protect acid- and nitrogen-sensitive habitats in the UK. The AAE has been calculated using UK 5x5 km Concentration Based Estimated Deposition (CBED) data for 2013-15 (https://doi.org/10.5285/fd8151e9-0ee2-4dfa-a254-470c9bb9bc1e). The data were generated under Defra-funded work to assess the potential areas of acid and nitrogen sensitive habitats at risk of adverse impacts from excess atmospheric acid and nitrogen deposition. Reducing the area and amount of critical load exceedance continues to be a driver of Government policy on reducing emissions of acidic and nitrogen-containing air pollutants (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonia). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/e32745d2-fb56-4f91-a235-6b213a8b45cb

  • The data provide critical loads of acidity, and of nutrient nitrogen for the distributions of UK habitats sensitive to acidification and/or eutrophication. Critical loads have been calculated and applied to UK natural and semi-natural habitats sensitive to acidification and/or eutrophication (excess nitrogen as a nutrient). Critical loads data are available for these habitat types at 1x1 km resolution for the UK. In addition, acidity critical loads are available for 1752 selected freshwater sites throughout the UK. Critical loads are defined as the maximum pollutant load (of acid or nitrogen deposition) that a sensitive element of the environment (e.g., soils, vegetation) can tolerate without adverse harmful effects occurring, according to present knowledge. Habitat distributions are defined from a combination of CEH Land Cover Map 2000 and a number of ancillary data sets (e.g., species distributions, altitude, soils), used to further refine their distributions. It should be noted that the habitat distributions maps and areas provided here and used for UK critical loads research for Defra (a) only include areas where data exist for the calculation or derivation of critical loads; (b) may differ from other national habitat distribution maps or estimates of habitat areas. This may also result in a difference in the total habitat areas mapped for acidity and for nutrient nitrogen critical loads. The data have been generated under numerous Defra-funded contracts that brought together UK experts on the impacts of air pollution on UK habitats. The acidity critical loads data were last revised in 2004 and the nutrient nitrogen critical loads data were updated in 2011. The data are based on methods agreed at national and international meetings and workshops held under the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/299e2779-0787-46bb-9482-03ad474eae27

  • Future Flows Climate (FF-HadRM3-PPE) is an 11-member ensemble climate projection for Great Britain at a 1-km resolution spanning from 1950 to 2098. It was specifically developed for hydrological application and contain daily time series of Available Precipitation, which is the precipiated water available to hydrological processes after delays due to snow and ice storage are accounted for; and monthly reference Potential Evapotranspiration calculated using the FAO56 method. Future Flows Climate is derived from the Hadley Centre's Regional climate projection ensemble HadRM3-PPE based on 11 different variants of the regional climate model run under the SRES A1B emission scenario. HadRM3-PPE is underpinning the UKCP09 products. Bias correction and spatial downscaling were applied to the total precpitation and air temperature variables before Future Flows Climate APr and PE were generated. The development of Future Flows Climate was made during the partnership project 'Future Flows and Groundwater Levels' funded by the Environment Agency for England and Wales, Defra, UK Water Research Industry, NERC (Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and British Geological Survey) and Wallingford HydroSolutions. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/bad1514f-119e-44a4-8e1e-442735bb9797

  • These datasets provide Concentration Based Estimated Deposition (CBED) values of sulphur and nitrogen atmospheric deposition for 5x5 kilometre (km) grid squares of the UK averaged over the years 2015 to 2017. The data consist of deposition values for sulphur, oxidised nitrogen and reduced nitrogen, and base cations. Total deposition is the sum of four components calculated separately: wet deposition, dry deposition of gases, dry deposition of particulate matter and cloud droplet deposition. Habitat-specific data are provided for (i) moorland/short vegetation everywhere, and (ii) forest everywhere. Additionally, the grid square average over multiple land cover types (i.e. arable, grassland, forest, moorland, urban) is also calculated. The habitat-specific data are recommended for use with critical loads for the calculation of critical load exceedances. The work in generating and compiling the dataset has been funded by the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH) and various Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (Defra) contracts. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/a19f8824-b3f5-4eea-836e-c5e07548709c

  • These datasets provide Concentration Based Estimated Deposition (CBED) values of sulphur and nitrogen atmospheric deposition for 5x5 kilometre (km) grid squares of the UK averaged over the years 2014 to 2016. The data consist of deposition values for sulphur, oxidised nitrogen and reduced nitrogen, and base cations. Total deposition is the sum of four components calculated separately: wet deposition, dry deposition of gases, dry deposition of particulate matter and cloud droplet deposition. Habitat-specific data are provided for (i) moorland/short vegetation everywhere, and (ii) forest everywhere. Additionally, the grid square average over multiple land cover types (i.e. arable, grassland, forest, moorland, urban) is also calculated. The habitat-specific data are recommended for use with critical loads for the calculation of critical load exceedances. The work in generating and compiling the dataset has been funded by the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH) and various Departments for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (Defra) contracts. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/05047b98-26a0-4162-adaf-18f68f802d9f

  • The WATCH Forcing data is a twentieth century meteorological forcing dataset for land surface and hydrological models. It consists of three/six-hourly states of the weather for global half-degree land grid points. It was generated as part of the EU FP 6 project "WATCH" (WATer and global CHange") which ran from 2007-2011. The data was generated in 2 tranches with slightly different methodology: 1901-1957 and 1958-2001, but generally the dataset can be considered as continuous. More details regarding the generation process can be found in the associated WATCH technical report and paper in J. Hydrometeorology. To understand how the data grid is formed it is necessary to read the attached WFD-land-long-lat-z files either in NetCDF or DAT formats. The data covers land points only and excludes the Antarctica. Wind or near surface wind speed at 10m is the near surface wind speed at 10m in m/s-1 at 6 hourly resolution and 0.5 x 0.5 degrees spatial resolution.

  • These datasets provide Concentration Based Estimated Deposition (CBED) values of nitrogen, sulphur and base cations deposition for 5x5 kilometre (km) grid squares of the UK averaged over the years 1986 to 2012. The data consist of deposition values for sulphur, oxidised nitrogen and reduced nitrogen, and base cations. Total deposition is the sum of four components calculated separately: wet deposition, dry deposition of gases, dry deposition of particulate matter and cloud droplet deposition. Habitat-specific data are provided for (i) moorland/short vegetation, and (ii) forest. Additionally, the grid square average over multiple land cover types (i.e. arable, grassland, forest, moorland, urban) is also calculated. The habitat-specific data are recommended for use with critical loads for the calculation of critical load exceedances. The work in generating and compiling the dataset has been funded by the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH) and various Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (Defra) contracts. Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/8e7644fe-9f17-4fc3-8e4e-8b10a42d5d50

  • This dataset is a model output from the JULES land surface model driven with the Watch Forcing Data methodology applied to Era-Interim (WFDEI) data. It provides monthly global methane emissions from natural wetlands on 0.5 x 0.5 degree grid between 1980-2014. It includes the following variables: - fch4_wetl: modelled methane flux from natural wetland, in mg CH4 m-2 day-1 - fwetl: fraction of wetland - cs: soil carbon in each of these four soil carbon pools: decomposable plant material, resistant plant material, microbial biomass and humus), in kg m-2 - t_soil: sub-surface temperature of the four modelled soil layers (0-0.1 m, 0.1-0.35 m, 0.35-1.0 m and 1.0-2.0 m), in K Full details about this dataset can be found at https://doi.org/10.5285/6ce61e91-6912-4fe2-a095-12136af86347

  • The WATCH forcing data (WFD) is a twentieth century meteorological forcing dataset for land surface and hydrological models. It consists of three/six-hourly states of the weather for global half-degree land grid points. It was generated as part of the EU FP 6 project "WATCH" (WATer and global CHange") which ran from 2007-2011. The data was generated in 2 tranches with slightly different methodology: 1901-1957 and 1958-2001, but generally the dataset can be considered as continuous. More details regarding the generation process can be found in the associated WATCH technical report and paper in J. Hydrometeorology. To understand how the data grid is formed it is necessary to read the attached WFD-land-long-lat-z files either in NetCDF or dat formats. The data covers land points only and excludes the Antarctica. Rainf or rainfall rate is the rainfall rate based on the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) bias corrected, undercatch corrected measured in kg/m2/s at 3 hourly resolution averaged over the next 3 hours and at 0.5 x 0.5 degrees spatial resolution. Please note that there is also a WFD Rainf CRU bias corrected dataset, but as the GPCC dataset is the preferred dataset only this rainfall dataset is available from the EIDC. These rainfall datasets contain rainfall data only and need to be combined with the respective WFD snowfall datasets to obtain precipitation data.